[113a - 50 lines; 113b - 36 lines]

***************GIRSA SECTION******************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos

[1] Rashi 113b DH me'Chad Kra מחד קרא:

The words

"Lo Sevashel ba'Chalev Imo Kol Mi she'Yesh Lo Chalev Em Behemah" לא תבשל בחלב אמו כל מי שיש לו חלב אם בהמה are in the wrong order and should read

"Lo Sevashel Behemah ba'Chalev Imo Kol Mi she'Yesh Lo Chalev Em" לא תבשל בהמה בחלב אמו כל מי שיש לו חלב אם

[2] Ein Mishpat 113b #105:

The reference "Ma'achalos Asuros Perek 9 Halachah 7" מאכלות אסורות פרק ט הלכה ז

should be "Ma'achalos Asuros Perek 9 Halachah 6" מאכלות אסורות פרק ט הלכה ו (the reference has been amended in the Wagshal printing)


1)[line 7]תפלTAFEL- unsalted (raw) meat

2)[line 23](סימן בישרא דמנח (נפקותא) [במפרקת])(SIMAN BISRA D'MANACH (NAFKUSA) [B'MAFREKES])- this is a mnemonic device that stands for a word from the three Halachos of Shmuel, as follows:

1.Bisra refers to "Ein ha'Basar Yotzei mi'Damo..." (line 24)

2.d'Manach refers to "Ein Manichin Basar Mali'ach..." (line 32)

3.(Nafkusa) [b'Mafrekes] refers to "ha'Shover Mafraktah Shel Behemah..." (line 36) (the Girsa change is found in DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #90)

3)[line 27]דחלליה בי טבחאD'CHALELEI BEI TABACHA- that it was washed (previously) in the butcher shop

4)[line 29]מילחא גללניתאMILCHA GELALNISA- (O.F. sel geme) rock-salt

5)[line 29]מנפיץ ליהMENAPETZ LEI- and he shakes it off

6)[line 31]כרכשאKARKESHA- the large intestines and rectum (O.F. tabahie)

7)[line 31]מעייאMEI'AYA- (small) intestine

8a)[line 31]הדרא דכנתאHADRA D'KANTA- the small intestine that surrounds the fatty part of the bowels (the coils of the ileum)

b)[line 31]כנתאKANTA- (O.F. entrail) the fatty part of the bowels (the ileum)

9a)[line 33]גרמאGARMA- body, self

b)[line 33]גרמא גרמאGARMA GARMA- piece by piece, one after the other

10)[line 36]מפרקתהMAFRAKTAH- its neck-bone

11)[line 43]בשר בהמה טהורה בחלב בהמה טהורהBASAR BEHEMAH TEHORAH B'CHALEV BEHEMAH TEHORAH (BASAR B'CHALAV)

(a)The verse, "Lo Sevashel Gedi ba'Chalev Imo" - "You shall not cook a young lamb in its mother's milk," is written in the Torah three times; in Shemos 23:19, in Shemos 34:26, and in Devarim 14:21.

(b)These three verses prohibit:

1.cooking meat and milk together,

2.eating them after they have been cooked together, and

3.deriving any benefit from them after they have been cooked together. By Torah Law it is forbidden to consume milk and meat that was cooked together; the Chachamim instituted that it is forbidden to consume meat and milk together in any fashion.

(c)One reason given for this law is that meat represents death (the slaughter of the animal), while milk represents new life, and it is not proper to mix life and death (REKANATI, TZEROR HAMOR, ZOHAR 2:124b). Another reason given is that eating meat and milk together was an idolatrous practice, especially on festivals (MOREH NEVUCHIM 3:48; RALBAG). Alternately, mixing meat and milk is prohibited because it is causing a detrimental change in nature, just like the prohibitions of Kil'ayim (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #92, #113).


12)[line 6]כל שני כתובים הבאים כאחד אין מלמדיןKOL SHNEI KESUVIM HA'BA'IM K'ECHAD EIN MELAMDIN - we do not learn from two subjects that express the same Halachah (lit. that come together) (BINYAN AV)

(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is called Binyan Av. A Binyan Av (lit. "building through a father" — father in this sense means a Biblical source), is a rule of Biblical interpretation in which one subject is deemed a prototype in order to apply a Halachah stated in that subject to other comparable subjects.

(b)If two verses express the same Halachah regarding two different subjects, we cannot apply the Halachah elsewhere through a Binyan Av. Through the fact that the Torah found it necessary to repeat the law the second time, we may deduce that the Halachah is not meant to be applied automatically in all situations.

13)[line 10]"גדי" לרבות את החֵלֶב"GEDI" LERABOS ES HA'CHELEV- the word "Gedi" (in the prohibition to cook meat in milk) was written to include forbidden fat as a type of meat that cannot be cooked with milk

14)[line 10]"גדי" לרבות את המתה"GEDI" LERABOS ES HA'MESAH- the word "Gedi" (in the prohibition to cook meat in milk) was written to include meat of a Neveilah (see Background to Chulin 102:12) as a type of meat that cannot be cooked with milk

15)[line 11]שלילSHELIL- a fetus or a fully-formed (having developed for nine months — RASHI to Chulin 89b), live animal that is found in its mother's womb after her slaughter

16)[line 13]שליאSHILYA- commonly translated as the placenta; a more accurate description is the fetal membranes in which the fetus forms, which are attached to the placenta (RASHI to Berachos 4a; TOSFOS to Nidah 18a DH Shilya and elsewhere in the Rishonim)

17)[line 17]איסור חל על איסורISUR CHAL AL ISUR

(a)An object that is already prohibited by one Isur Torah cannot become prohibited by a second one (Ein Isur Chal Al Isur). However, there are a number of possible exceptions to this principle (when we rule Isur Chal Al Isur) that are debated by the Tana'im (Chulin 101a):

1.Isur b'Vas Achas - Two Isurim may take effect at the same instant to prohibit the same object.

2.Isur Kolel - The second Isur may take effect if it includes objects that the first Isur did not (e.g. Yom ha'Kipurim prohibits not only the eating of Neveilos, but Kosher foods as well.)

3.Isur Mosif - The second Isur may take effect if it adds a new dimension of Isur to the first (e.g. it prohibits the object to people who were not included in the first Isur, or it makes the object Asur b'Hana'ah and not just Asur to be eaten.)

4.Isur Chamur (according to Rebbi Yehudah) - A more stringent Isur can take effect on an object that is already prohibited by a less stringent Isur (e.g. the prohibition of Gid ha'Nasheh is more stringent than the prohibition of non-Kosher animals, since it applied to Benei Yakov when they were still permitted to eat non-Kosher animals).

(b)According to Rebbi Shimon, an object that is already prohibited can never become prohibited by another Isur, even if the second Isur is Kolel, Mosif or Chamur.

(c)RASHI (DH me'Chad Kra) shows that this line should be omitted from the Gemara. The following Sugya will deal with the issue as to whether or not Shmuel rules that Isur Chal Al Isur.

18)[line 19]פירשא בעלמא הואPIRSHA B'ALMA HU- it is merely waste

19)[line 23]כהן טמא שאכל תרומה טמאהKOHEN TAMEI SHE'ACHAL TERUMAH TEME'AH

(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, the owner must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Kohanim and members of their households are allowed to eat Terumah, as long as they are Tehorim.

(b)A Kohen who is Tamei who eats Terumah that is Tahor is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, as is learned from the verse in Vayikra 22:9 (as our Sugya brings at the end of this Amud).

(c)A Kohen who is Tamei who eats Terumah that is Temei'ah is not liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. The Gemara discusses whether or not this is a result of Isur Chal Al Isur, and whether or not this is Shmuel's individual opinion.

20)[line 24]"[וְשָׁמְרוּ אֶת מִשְׁמַרְתִּי, וְלֹא יִשְׂאוּ עָלָיו חֵטְא] וּמֵתוּ בוֹ כִּי יְחַלְּלֻהוּ; [אֲנִי ה', מְקַדְּשָׁם]""... U'MESU VO KI YECHALELUHU..."- "[They shall therefore keep My ordinance, lest they bear sin for it] and die as a result if they profane it; [I, Hash-m, sanctify them]" (Vayikra 22:9) - This verse refers to Terumah.

21)[line 32]המבשל חֵלֶב בחָלָבHA'MEVASHEL CHELEV B'CHALAV- one who cooks forbidden fat in milk