[I] Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos

GEMARA - Maseches Chagigah follows Moed Katan in the Dafyomi cycle, as well as in the order of the Vilna Shas, the Mishnayos, and the order of Masechtos according to the Rambam (in his introduction to Perush ha'Mishnayos). Rav Reuven Margoliyos (Yesod ha'Mishnah v'Arichasah, chapter 3) proposes that the Masechtos in each Seder are organized according to their length in numbers of chapters, starting with the longest and concluding with the shortest. Why does Moed Katan precede Chagigah, if both are comprised of three chapters? The Rambam writes that Moed Katan follows Megilah because Chol ha'Mo'ed (the subject of Moed Katan) is similar to Purim (the subject of Megilah) in that fasting and eulogies are forbidden. The Rambam writes that after the detailed laws of each festival have been taught in Seder Moed, the laws of the Korbanos of the three major festivals are taught in Maseches Chagigah. Since the central subject of Chagigah applies only to men, its position was relegated to the end of Seder Moed.

The word "Chagigah" refers to the Korban Chagigah, one of the three types of Korbanos which one is obligated to offer in the Beis ha'Mikdash on each of the three primary festivals -- Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos. The Torah requires that every adult Jewish male appear before Hash-m in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash and to bring a Korban Re'iyah on Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos (Devarim 16:16). The Korban Re'iyah is a Korban Olah. If the Korban was not brought on the first day of Pesach, it may be brought on any of the other six days of Pesach. On Sukos it may be brought on the first day or the next seven days. On Shavuos it may be brought on the Yom Tov or on the six days following the festival.

The Torah also requires every adult Jewish male to offer to offer a Korban Chagigah (Shemos 23:14), which is a Korban Shelamim. The Gemara (Chagigah 7a) records an argument with regard to whether one is required (or even permitted) to bring more than one Korban Chagigah if he comes to the Azarah on more than one day of a festival.

The Mitzvah of Simchah (Devarim 27:7) that applies on the three festivals of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos requires a person to eat the meat of Korbanos every day of the festival. If no meat of any other Korban is available, one brings a special Korban, known as "Shalmei Simchah," for the purpose of fulfilling this Mitzvah (see Insights to Pesachim 71:1 and Chagigah 8:1). Athough women are not obligated to fulfill this Mitzvah, a woman's husband or father, and a widow's neighbor or benefactor, must give her Shalmei Simchah to eat in order to make her joyous (Kidushin 34b, Ba'al ha'Me'or to Kidushin 6a, Ra'avad and Kesef Mishneh in Hilchos Chagigah 1:1; see, however, Me'iri to Rosh Hashanah 6a and Lechem Mishneh to Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 14:14, who maintain that according to the Rambam, women are obligated to offer the Shalmei Simchah themselves). The Mitzvah of Simchah also requires that every Jew experience joy on the festival. One who eats food and wears clothing that cause him to be happy and provides such items to the members of his household, to each person according to his taste, fulfills this Mitzvah. One is also required to help support the poor and downtrodden on Yom Tov. One who eats and drinks and does not help the poor does not fulfill "Simchah Shel Mitzvah," the joy of a Mitzvah; rather, his Simchah is considered "Simchas Kereiso," self-indulgence for the "joy of his own stomach" (Rambam, Hilchos Yom Tov 6:17-18).

The first two chapters of Maseches Chagigah describe the laws of the festival Korbanos, although the second chapter opens with five pages of Agadah. The third chapter discusses various laws of Tum'ah and Taharah.


RASHI - The style of Rashi in this Maseches is similar to his style in the rest of Shas.


TOSFOS - The commentary of Tosfos in Chagigah is based primarily on the Tosfos-commentary of Rabeinu Elchanan, whose name is cited often. In two places, the words of Tosfos end with the signature, "Rabeinu Shimson" (26a, DH ha'Gaba'in, and DH Yerushalayim), and in a number of places the words "my teacher" is mentioned but with no name (for example, 12b, DH Nichnas; 18a, DH Ela; 18b, DH Kan; 19a, DH Rebbi). "My teacher" appears to be a reference to Rabeinu Yehudah Sirleon (d. 1224), a close disciple of Rabeinu Yitzchak bar Shmuel (d. 1190) -- the "Ri ha'Zaken," one of the primary Ba'alei ha'Tosfos and the nephew and close disciple of Rabeinu Tam, and Rabeinu Tam's successor as the leader of the Ba'alei ha'Tosfos. Rav E. Urbach (in "Ba'alei ha'Tosfos," p. 485) suggests that the author of Tosfos in these instances is Rabeinu Moshe of Evreux, who compiled the Tosfos-commentaries of his teacher, Rabeinu Yehudah Sirleon, and of Rabeinu Elchanan, and appended some comments from the Tosfos-commentary of Rabeinu Shimshon.

[II] Rishonim

(This section includes a roughly chronological listing of Rishonim who wrote a Daf-by-Daf commentary on the Maseches. We have included some of the less familiar commentaries even though they were written on the Rif and not on the Maseches itself.)

(1) Rishonim: Early Commentaries

RABEINU CHANANEL - Rabeinu Chananel ben Chushiel lived in the eleventh century (d. 1053/4813). His father, Rabeinu Chushiel, was one of the famous "four captives" (a group of Roshei Yeshiva who were captured by pirates and redeemed by different communities along the Mediterranean coast). He was redeemed from bondage by the people of Kirouan, North Africa, where his son Rabeinu Chananel was born. The commentary of Rabeinu Chananel on Moed Katan is printed in the margin of the Vilna Shas, and was reprinted from manuscript and annotated by Rav David Metzger (1996, Jerusalem; Mechon Lev Sameach).

(2) Rishonim Of Spain (Aragon)

RAMBAN - Rabeinu Moshe ben Nachman lived in the thirteenth century. He died in 1270/5030. He was a student of the Ramah (Rabeinu Meir ha'Levi Abulefia). Although he authored abundant Chidushim on other Masechtos, he has only a few pages of commentary on Maseches Chagigah. The Ramban's commentary was published with corrections and short annotations by Rav Isser Zalman Meltzer zt'l (1928, Zalkow).

(3) Rishonim of Provence and Narvona

RABEINU YEHONASAN MI'LUNIL - Rabeinu Yehonasan of Lunil lived in the early 1200's and learned under the Ra'avad. He wrote a commentary on the Rif for most of Shas (Perushei Rabeinu Yehonasan mi'Lunil, 1985, Jerusalem).


SEFER HA'ME'OROS - Rabeinu Meir (ben Shimon) ha'Me'ili of Narvona (d. 1264/5024) wrote "Sefer ha'Me'oros" on the Rif. His commentary was reprinted with annotations by Rav Moshe Yehudah Blau (1967, New York).


RABEINU AVRAHAM MIN HA'HAR - Rabeinu Avraham (ben Yitzchak) "Min ha'Har," or "from Montpellier," was a contemporary of the Ramban and the Rashba. A major goal of his commentary is to explain each Sugya according to the Rambam. His citations of Rashi occasionally vary from the Rashi printed in our text. Apparently, the author of this commentary also wrote the commentaries printed under the names "Tosfos Rid" and "Tosfos Ri ha'Zaken" in the margins of Maseches Gitin and Kidushin, respectively. His commentary on Maseches Chagigah was published from manuscript by Rav Moshe Yehudah ha'Kohen Blau (1975, New York).


ME'IRI - Rabeinu Menachem ben Shlomo (d. 1315/5075) wrote his comprehensive Halachic work, "Beis ha'Bechirah," on 37 Masechtos of Shas. The Me'iri was a student of the Rashba, and he occasionally even cites from commentaries as late as those of the Ritva. The Me'iri rarely mentions another Rishon by name. Instead, he created "nicknames" for the commentators from whom he often cites, such as "Gedolei ha'Rabanim" for Rashi, and "Gedolei ha'Mechabrim" for the Rambam. A convenient list of these, along with their true identities, can be found in Rav Avraham Sofer's introduction to the Beis ha'Bechirah on Beitzah.


SEFER HA'AGUDAH - A Sugya-by-Sugya collection of Halachos by Rabeinu Alexander Zuslin ha'Kohen (d. 1348/5108; he was killed by gentiles in a pogrom during the period of the Black Plague), printed with annotations by Rav Elazar Brizel (1966, Yerushalayim).


RA'AVYAH - Rabeinu Eliezer ben Yoel ha'Levi (d. 1225/4985) was a grandson of the Ra'avan and was one of the Ba'alei ha'Tosfos. He authored "Sefer Avi ha'Ezri," which is more commonly known by its author's acronym as "Sefer Ra'avyah." His work had a significant influence on the Rosh.


TOSFOS RID & PISKEI RID - Rabeinu Yeshayah (ben Mali, or ha'Rishon) d'Trani was one of the leading sages of Italy/Germany during the early 1200's (not to be confused with his grandson, Rabeinu Yeshayah Acharon, or Ri'az, author of the Piskei Ri'az). His commentary on most of the Masechtos of Shas is known as "Tosfos Rid." His commentary was written in several Mahaduros, or treatises. He also compiled a Halachic summary of the Maseches called Piskei Rid.


PISKEI RI'AZ - Rabeinu Yeshayah Acharon, a grandson of the Tosfos Rid, authored the Piskei Ri'az, which is printed together with the Piskei Rid, as described above. His words are cited often by the Shiltei Giborim on the Rif.

(5) Rishonim in the Style of Tosfos

SEFER HA'YASHAR - Rabeinu Yakov ben Meir, known as Rabeinu Tam (from the verse "v'Yakov Ish Tam"), wrote Chidushim on Chagigah which appear in the Chidushim section of his Sefer ha'Yashar. Rabeinu Tam was the son of Rashi's daughter. He and his two brothers, Rashbam (Rabeinu Shmuel ben Meir, the oldest of the three) and Rivam (Rabeinu Yitzchak ben Meir) were the first generation of Ba'alei ha'Tosfos. He died in 1171/4931. Sefer ha'Yashar was reprinted based on two original manuscripts, with footnotes, by Rav Shimon Schlesinger (second edition, 1980, Jerusalem, para. 405 et seq.).


TOSFOS HA'ROSH - Rabeinu Asher ben Yechiel (d. 1328/5088), originally from Germany, fled to Spain after his mentor, Rabeinu Meir of Rotenburg, was taken captive by the authorities who demanded an exorbitant sum for ransom. When Rabeinu Meir ordered his students not to pay the ransom, his student, the Rosh, was forced to flee from the authorities. (Rabeinu Meir was never ransomed, in accordance with his will, and he passed away in jail.) One of the most prominent sages of Germany, the Rosh wrote commentaries and rulings on much of Shas which had a profound influence on the Halachic practice of Ashkenazic Jewry. His Tosfos-commentaries are patterned after those of the classic Ba'alei ha'Tosfos, and they often shed light on Tosfos' intent. They are printed in the common set of Tosfos ha'Rosh.

[III] Acharonim: Commentaries and Chidushim

RISHON L'TZIYON - A commentary by Rav Chaim Ibn Atar, the Or ha'Chaim ha'Kadosh, on several Masechtos including Chagigah. The author focuses primarily on the Rambam's understanding of the Gemara and on the practical Halachah.


SI'ACH YITZCHAK - The commentary of Rav Yitzchak Nunis Weiss of Livorno. Originally published in 1766 in Livorno, Italy, the Si'ach Yitzchak is an indispensable Peshat-based commentary on Maseches Yoma and Chagigah. It includes Chidushim on the Gemara, Rashi, and Tosfos, as well as corrections and comments on the commentary of the Tosfos Yeshanim and citations from the Me'iri.


TZELACH - Rav Yechezkel Landau of Prague wrote "Tziyun l'Nefesh Chayah," known by its acronym, "Tzelach." He is also the author of the Noda b'Yehudah. (He named his work on Shas after his mother, Chayah, and his work of responsa, Noda b'Yehudah, after his father.)


TUREI EVEN - Chidushim on Megilah, Rosh Hashanah, and Chagigah by Rav Aryeh Leib of Mitz, the author of Sha'agas Aryeh (Teshuvos) and Gevuras Ari (Yoma, Makos, Ta'anis).


REBBI AKIVA EIGER - A collection of Chidushim of Rebbi Akiva Eiger, culled from all of his writings (1983, Zichron Yakov).


SEFAS EMES - Short and penetrating insights by Rav Yehudah Aryeh Leib of Gur, the second Gerer Rebbe, grandson of the Chidushei ha'Rim (the first Gerer Rebbe).


MEROMEI SADEH - The Chidushim of the Netziv (Rav Naftali Tzvi Yehudah Berlin, the great-grandson of Rav Chaim of Volozhen, and the last Rosh Yeshiva of Volozhen) on most of Shas. The Netziv's works include Ha'emek Davar on the Torah, in-depth commentaries on the Sifri, Mechilta, and She'iltos, and Meshiv Davar, a collection of responsa.


LIKUTEI HALACHOS - By the Chafetz Chaim on the parts of Chagigah that deal with Kodshim (most of the Maseches). Written in the style of the Rif, the Chafetz Chaim compiled a collection of the Gemara's conclusions along with Rashi-style glosses and an additional commentary, called "Zevach Todah," in which he provides insights into the Halachos.


MENACHEM MESHIV NEFESH - Written by Rav Menachem Manish Heilprin. These short, helpful comments on all of Seder Moed pertain to the literal meaning of the Gemara and Rashi, and are intended for those learning the Maseches quickly. This work includes many Girsa corrections as well.


SHE'ARIM METZUYANIM B'HALACHAH - Commentary on the Gemara, including insights into contemporary Halachic issues, by Rav Shlomo Braun (1991, New York).


EMES L'YAKOV - A commentary on the Gemara by Rav Yakov Kaminetzky zt'l, compiled from his writings (1991, New York - Cleveland).


ME'OR YISRAEL - Chidushim and Bi'urim by Rav Ovadyah Yosef (1997, Jerusalem).


SHA'AREI CHAGIGAH - A collection of sources, insights, and explanations on the Maseches, published by Kollel Sha'arei Chaim (2000, Jerusalem).

[IV] Acharonim: Anthologies

GILYONEI HA'SHAS - Written by Rav Yosef Engel, author of "Asvan d'Oraisa," this Sefer includes many references to, and quotes from, the writings of the Rishonim in their responsa and other early works, with additional insights by the author.


OR HA'YASHAR - Written by Rav Shmuel Hilman, an excellent anthology on all of Torah, Navi, Mishnah, and every Daf of Gemara.

[V] Study Aids to Chagigah

KOLLEL IYUN HADAF - Kollel Iyun Hadaf's invaluable "Insights to the Daf" touch on many of the questions that one is likely to ask on the Gemara and Rashi, as well as clarifications and in-depth discussions on Halachic issues and Agados of the Masechta. Kollel Iyun Hadaf's Charts (in English and Hebrew), Graphics, and "Background to the Daf," with translations, Girsa notes, and introductions to concepts discussed on the Daf, are invaluable study aids. "Review Questions and Answers" facilitate review of the Masechta, as does the "Daf-Quiz," while "Outlines of the Daf" enhance one's learning. In Hebrew, one can review with the acclaimed "Hebrew Charts," and with "Galei Masechta," a concise Hebrew review of the Gemara, Rashi, and Tosfos. The Kollel also addresses questions on the Daf in an interactive discussion forum (at DAF@DAFYOMI.CO.IL).


YOSEF DA'AS - Published by Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Rav Ben Arza's renowned Hebrew compendium on the Masechta is now available in a hardcover edition. This outstanding publication provides clear summaries of the distinct approaches of the Rishonim to the Sugya, analyses of the Acharonim, inspiring insights of the masters of Musar and Machshavah, and summaries of the Halachic conclusions of the Poskim. A comprehensive review section is also included.

b'Hatzlachah in Maseches Chagigah!