1)

(a)Rebbi Zeira explains that Moshe Rabeinu and David ha'Melech both knew exactly when midnight was. Why then, did David require a harp?

(b)Why did Moshe change the words of Hash-m from "ba'Chatzos Laylah" to "ka'Chatzos Laylah"?

(c)Rav Ashi answers that "ka'Chatzos" is not a noun, meaning 'at around midnight', but a verb, which means 'when the night is split'. When was Moshe speaking to Yisrael and what exactly did he tell them?

(d)The first reason is based on a statement of Mar. What did Mar say about training oneself to say 'I don't know'?

1)

(a)Rebbi Zeira explains that both Moshe Rabeinu and David ha'Melech both knew exactly when midnight was, and David's harp was needed - simply to wake him up.

(b)And Moshe changed from "ba'Chatzos Laylah" to "ka'Chatzos Laylah" - because Par'oh's wise men might otherwise have erred regarding the time, and then gone on to accuse him of lying.

(c)Rav Ashi answers that "ka'Chatzos" is not a noun, meaning 'at around midnight', but a verb, which means 'when the night is split'. Moshe was speaking to Yisrael - on the night between the thirteenth of Nisan and the fourteenth, and he told them that on the following night at the point when the night is divided in two, Hash-m will go out over Egypt and kill all the firstborn.

(d)The first reason is based on a statement of Mar, who said - that one one should train oneself to say 'I don't know', to avoid being pulled up for lying.

2)

(a)Based on the Pasuk "le'David, Shamrah Nafshi ki Chasid Ani", Levi and Rebbi Yitzchak argue over why David referred to himself as a Chasid. One explained that it was because he used to arise at midnight to praise Hash-m, in spite of the prevalent custom of other Kings of that time to get up only in the third hour of the morning. What did the other one say?

(b)What was the name of David's Rebbe?

(c)What did he (David) used to say to him?

(d)In fact, his real name was Ishboshes (or Eshba'al). Then why was he called 'Mefivoshes'? What is Mefivoshes the acronym of?

2)

(a)Based on the Pasuk "le'David, Shamrah Nafshi ki Chasid Ani", Levi and Rebbi Yitzchak argue over why David referred to himself as a Chasid. One explained that it was because he used to arise at midnight to praise Hash-m, in spite of the prevalent custom of other Kings of that time to get up only in the third hour of the morning. According to the other - he was referring to his life-style - which included examining a Sh'fir (a fetus) and Shilya (a placenta) for women, in order to permit them (wherever possible) to return to their husbands. And not only that, but he would check out all his Halachic rulings with his Rebbe, to ensure that they were correct.

(b)The name of David's Rebbe was Mefivoshes ...

(c)... and he used to unashamedly consult him on all his rulings, to check whether he had ruled correctly.

(d)In fact, his real name was Ishboshes (or Eshba'al), and he was called 'Mefivoshes' - because it was the acronym of 'Mevayesh P'nei David ba'Halachah' (he put David to shame in Halachah).

3)

(a)As a reward, David fathered a son called Kil'av, whose name, Rebbi Yochanan teaches us, was Daniel. Then why was he called 'Kil'av'? What is Kil'av the acronym of?

(b)We cite two Pesukim in Tehilim which describe David's joy at having such a son. What is the significance of the final words of the latter Pasuk "Ve'ashivah Chorfi Davar"?

3)

(a)As a reward, Davide fathered a son called Kil'av, whose name, Rebbi Yochanan teaches us, was Daniel. He was called 'Kil'av' - because it is the acronym of 'Machlim Av' (since he shamed Mefivoshes in Halachah).

(b)We cite two Pesukim in Tehilim which describe David's joy at having such a son. The significance of the final words of the latter Pasuk "Ve'ashivah Chorfi Davar" is - that this was David's answer to the shame that he used to experience before Mefivoshes ('Midah k'Neged Midah').

4)

(a)We query the fact that David referred to himself as a Chasid from the dots on the word "Lulei" in the Pasuk in Tehilim "Lulei He'emanti Lir'os be'Tuv Hash-m be'Eretz Chayim". Based on those dots, what does Rebbi Yossi in a Beraisa quote David ha'Melech as having said to Hash-m?

(b)How do we explain the fact that one moment David refers to himself as a Chasid and the next, he is not even sure that he will go to Olam ha'Ba?

(c)And we support this answer with a statement by Rav Ya'akov bar Idi, to reconcile the Pasuk in Vayeitzei "ve'Hinei Anochi Imach u'Shemarticha ... " with the Pasuk in Vayishlach "Vayira Ya'akov Me'od Vayeitzer lo". What is the problem?

(d)How did Rav Ya'akov bar Idi solve the problem?

4)

(a)We query the fact that David referred to himself as a Chasid from the dots on the word "Lulei" in the Pasuk in Tehilim "Lulei He'emanti Lir'os be'Tuv Hash-m be'Eretz Chayim". Based on those dots, what Rebbi Yossi in a Beraisa quotes David ha'Melech as having said to Hash-m - that although he was fully aware that He fully rewards the Tzadikim in the World to Come for all their good deeds, he did not know whether he was among them.

(b)The fact that one moment David refers to himself as a Chasid and the next, he is not even sure that he will go to Olam ha'Ba - is due to the fear that although at one stage, he was a Chasid, perhaps he had sinned in the meantime and was no longer worthy ('Shema Yigrom ha'Chet').

(c)And we support this answer with a statement by Rav Ya'akov bar Idi, to reconcile the Pasuk in Vayeitzei "ve'Hinei Anochi Imach u'Shemarticha ... " with the Pasuk in Vayishlach "Vayira Ya'akov Me'od Vayeitzer lo". The problem there is - that if Hash-m had promised to look after Ya'akov Avinu, how could he then be afraid that Eisav a would come and kill him?

(d)Rav Ya'akov bar Idi solved the problem - with the principle 'Shema Yigrom ha'Chet'.

5)

(a)(e) A practical application of Rav Ya'akov bar Idi's answer occurred in connection with the Pasuk in the Shirah "... ad Ya'avor Amcha Hash-m, ad Ya'avor Am Zu Kanisa". What are the two 'ad Ya'avors' referring to?

(b)Based on the repetition of exactly the same words, what ought to have happened?

(c)What prevented it from actually taking place?

5)

(a)A practical application of Rav Ya'akov bar Idi's answer occurred in connection with the Pasuk in the Shirah "... ad Ya'avor Amcha Hash-m, ad Ya'avor Am Zu Kanisa". The two 'ad Ya'avors' are referring to Yisrael's first and second entries into Eretz Yisrael (under Yehoshua and Ezra, respectively).

(b)Based on the repetition of exactly the same words - they ought to have returned to Eretz Yisrael from Bavel with Ezra in the same triumphant manner as they did with Yehoshua.

(c)What prevented it from actually taking place - was the fact that they sinned.

4b----------------------------------------4b

6)

(a)The Rabbanan hold that one must read the Sh'ma by midnight. Do they hold in principle, like Rebbi Eliezer (the end of the first watch) or like Rabbanan Gamliel (the whole night) in the previous Mishnah)?

(b)Why is that?

(c)Then in which point do they argue with him?

(d)What were they afraid a personmight do?

6)

(a)The Rabbanan, who hold that one must read the Sh'ma by midnight, hold in principle - like Rabban Gamliel, who permits the recital of the Sh'ma until dawn ...

(b)...because they too interpret "u've'Kumecha" to mean - as long as people are lying in bed.

(c)Only they maintain - that the Rabbanan decreed that one must recite the Sh'ma by midnight, in order to avoid sinning.

(d)They were afraid - that a person may come home from work and opt to have a something to eat before reciting the Sh'ma and Davening the Amidah. And that, after eating something, he will promtly fall asleep until the morning.

7)

(a)How did they therefore present a worker's order of priorities when he arrives home in the evening after work?

(b)One of the reasons that Chazal said specifically here, that someone who transgresses the words of the Chachamim, is Chayav Misah,is because of the strong likelihood of one's falling asleep (as we explained). What is the other reason?

7)

(a)They therefore presented the order of priorities of a worker who returns from home in the evening as 1. Going to the Beis ha'Medrash to learn a little; 2. Reciting the Sh'ma and the Amidah, and 3. Sitting down to eat (See Tosfos, DH 've'Korei').

(b)One of the reasons that Chazal said specifically here, that someone who transgresses the words of the Chachamim, is Chayav Misah,is because of the strong likelihood of one's falling asleep (as we explained). The other reason is - in order to stress the fact that Ma'ariv is obligatory (unlike those who maintain that it is voluntary).

8)

(a)The Beraisa we just quoted said 'Korei K'ri'as Sh'ma u'Mispalel' serves as a support for the of pinion of Rebbi Yochanan. What did Rebbi Yochanan say about juxtaposing Ge'ulah next to Tefilah?

(b)What does Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi hold in this matter?

(c)What is the basis of their Machlokes if it is based ...

1. ... on logic?

2. ... on the Hekesh of "u've'Shochbecha" to "u've'Kumecha"?

8)

(a)The Beraisa we just quoted said 'Korei K'ri'as Sh'ma u'Mispalel' serves as a support for the of pinion of Rebbi Yochanan, who says - that this ruling extends to Ma'ariv.

(b)According to Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi however, Chazal placed the Tefilos in the middle - so that Sh'ma is said before Tefilah in the morning, but after Tefilah at night-time (so that the Tefilos are flanked by the recital of Sh'ma).

(c)The basis of their Machlokes if it is based ...

1. ... on logic is - that according to Rebbi Yochanan, although the real redemption (i.e. the exodus from Egypt) took place in the day, it actually began at night - after Makas Bechoros - when Par'oh asked Moshe to leave Egypt. Consequently, Ge'ulah li'Tefilah applies as much to Ma'ariv as it applies to Shachris. Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi on the other hand, maintains that the Ge'ulah took place in the day, not at night (since they did not go out yet). Consequently, juxtaposing Ge'ulah to Tefilah is not applicable.

2. ... on the Hekesh of "u've'Shochbecha" to "u've'Kumecha" is - that according to Rebbi Yochanan, just like in the morning, the Sh'ma precedes the Amidah, so too, in the evening; Whereas, Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi explains that, just as in the morning, the Sh'ma is recited immediately after getting up (close to his bed), so too at night-time (is the Sh'ma recited close to his bed) - the last thing before retiring.

9)

(a)Mar b'rei de'Ravina queries Rebbi Yochanan from the Mishnah 'ba'Erev Mevarech Sh'tayim ... le'Acharehah'. What is the Kashya?

(b)What do we answer? Why is 'Hashkiveinu' not an interruption between Ge'ulah and Tefilah?

(c)How do we prove this from Shachris, where a similar concept applies?

9)

(a)Mar b'rei de'Ravina queries Rebbi Yochanan from the Mishnah 'ba'Erev Mevarech Sh'tayim ... le'Acharehah' - including 'Hashkiveinu', which interrupts between 'Ga'al Yisrael' and the Amidah (a Kashya on Rebbi Yochanan).

(b)We answer that 'Hashkiveinu' is not an interruption between Ge'ulah and Tefilah - because, now that Chazal have fixed it as an official part of Ma'ariv, it is like an extended redemption (especially as the contents of 'Hashkiveinu, deal with saving us from a variety of troubles).

(c)And we prove this from Shachris, where, before the Amidah, we say 'Hashem Sefasai Tiftach ...' which would be an interruption between Ge'ulah and Tefilah, if not for the fact that, since Chazal inserted it prior to the Tefilah, it is considered an extension ot the Tefilah.

10)

(a)What does Rebbi Elazar bar Avina say about anybody who recites 'Tehilah le'David' (Ashrei) three times each day?

(b)We initially refute the suggestion that this is because ...

1. ... its Pesukim follow the 'Alef-Beis', because in that case, we ought to say the chapter in Tehilim "Ashrei Temimei Derech". What advantage does that chapter have over "Tehilah le'David"?

2. ... of the importance of the Pasuk "Pose'ach es Yadecha ... ", because in that case, we might just as well recite Hallel ha'Gadol. What is 'Hallel ha'Gadol'?

(c)Which similar Pasuk does Hallel ha'Gadol contain?

(d)Why then, do we say specifically "Tehilah le'David"?

10)

(a)Rebbi Elazar bar Avina states that anybody who recites 'Tehilah le'David' (Ashrei) three times a day - earns himself a ticket to Olam ha'Ba.

(b)We initially refute the suggestion that this is because ...

1. ... its Pesukim follow the 'Alef-Beis', because in that case, we ought to say the chapter in Tehilim "Ashrei Temimei Derech" - which contains the 'Alef-Beis' (not just once, but) eight times.

2. ... of the importance of the Pasuk "Pose'ach es Yadecha ... ", because in that case, we might just as well recite 'Hallel ha'Gadol' (the long 'Hodu la'Hashem', also in Tehilim) ...

(c)... which contains the similar Pasuk "Nosein lechem le'Chol Basar ki Le'olam Chasdo".

(d)We therefore conclude that we say 'Tehilah le'David' - due the combination of both reasons (it follows the order of the Alef-Beis in addition to containing the Pasuk "Pose'ach es Yadecha ... ".

11)

(a)Rebbi Yochanan asked why the 'Nun' missing from the opening letters of the Pesukim of "Tehilah le'David". What did he answer?

(b)Which Pasuk in Amos is the source for this concept?

(c)How did the B'nei Eretz Yisrael read the Pasuk in Amos to soften its meaning?

(d)And what does Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak say to explain how David ha'Melech nevertheless subtly inserted the 'Nun' in a softer manner?

11)

(a)Rebbi Yochanan asked why the 'Nun' missing from the opening letters of the Pesukim of "Tehilah le'David", and he explained - that the 'Nun' (which stands for 'Nofeil') represents the permanent downfall of Klal Yisrael ...

(b)... as hinted in the Pasuk in Amos "Nafla, Lo Sosif Kum, Besulas Yisrael".

(c)To soften its meaning, the B'nei Eretz Yisrael would simply change the location of the comma, to read "Nafla Lo Sosif, Kum Besulas Yisrael!"

(d)Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak explains that David ha'Melech nevertheless subtly inserted the 'Nun' in a softer manner - when, in the Pasuk beginning with a 'Samech', he wrote "Somech Hash-m le'Chol ha'Noflim ... ".

12)

(a)Rebbi Elazar bar Avina also discusses the difference between the angel Gavriel and the angel Micha'el. What does he extrapolate from the fact that with regard to the former, Yeshayah writes "Vaya'af eilai Echad min ha'Serafim", whereas Daniel writes "ve'ha'Ish Gavriel ... "Mu'af Bi'af"?

(b)What do we learn from the Gezeirah-Shavah "Echad" (in the above Pasuk in Yeshayah) "Echad" (in Daniel) "ve'Hinei Micha'el Echad min ha'Sarim ... "?

(c)The Beraisa corroborates Rebbi Elazar bar Avina statement and elaborates. If Eliyahu takes four steps, how many steps does the Angel of Death take?

(d)On what occasion does the Angel of Death take only one step?

12)

(a)Rebbi Elazar bar Avina also discusses the difference between the angel Gavriel and the angel Micha'el. He extrapolates from the fact that with regard to the former, Yeshayah writes "Vaya'af eilai Echad min ha'Serafim", whereas Daniel writes "ve'ha'Ish Gavriel ... "Mu'af Bi'af" - that Micha'el (the angel of mercy) reaches his destination in one leap, whereas Gavriel (the angel of judgement) reaches his in only two.

(b)We learn from the Gezeirah-Shavah "Echad" (in the above Pasuk in Yeshayah) "Echad" (in Daniel) "ve'Hinei Micha'el Echad min ha'Serafim ... "- the latter refers to Micha'el.

(c)The Beraisa corroborates Rebbi Elazar bar Avina statement and elaborates - that Eliyahu makes four leaps, and the Angel of Death - eight.

(d)The Angel of Death makes only one leap - when a plague is in progress.

13)

(a)What does Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi say about reciting the Sh'ma before going to bed, even though one has already recited it at Ma'ariv?

(b)From which Pasuk in Tehilim does Rav Asi (or Rav Yosef) learn it?

(c)What does Rav Nachman (bar Yitzchak) say about a Talmid-Chacham?

(d)According to Abaye however,, even a Talmid-Chacham is obligated to say at least one Pasuk of Rachamim. Which Pasuk in Tehilim does he cite as an example?

13)

(a)Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi rules - that one is obligated to recite the Sh'ma before going to bed, even though one has already recited it at Ma'ariv.

(b)Rav Asi (or Rav Yosef) learns it from the Pasuk in Tehilim - "Rigzu ve'Al Techeta'u Imru bi'Levav'chem al Mishkavchem ve'Domu Selah".

(c)Rav Nachman (bar Yitzchak) absolves a Talmid-Chacham from reciting it.

(d)According to Abaye however, even a Talmid-Chacham is obligated to say at least one Pasuk of Rachamim - such as the Pasuk in Tehilim "be'Yad'cha Afkid Ruchi padisa Hash-m osi Hash-m ... "

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