THE DECREE TO FINISH BY MIDNIGHT
(R. Yitzchak bar Yosef): R. Yehoshua ben Levi did not explicitly say that the Halachah follows R. Shimon, Rav Acha inferred this from the following episode:
Two Rabanan drank a lot at the wedding of R. Yehoshua ben Levi's son (and slept past dawn, without saying Shema). R. Yehoshua ben Levi ruled that they should say Shema (before sunrise) -- in pressed circumstances, we may rely on R. Shimon's opinion.
(Mishnah): A case occurred, R. Gamliel's sons...
Question: Had they not heard this Halachah from their father before this?!
Answer: They had heard it;
They asked, do Chachamim argue with you? If so, they are the majority, the Halachah follows them;
Or, do they agree with you, and midnight is merely a mid'Rabanan deadline to distance people from transgressing?
R. Gamliel answered, they agree with me.
(Mishnah - Raban Gamliel): Not only this...
Question: This implies that R. Gamliel said that the Mitzvah of Kri'as Shema is only until midnight. R. Gamliel did not say this!
Answer: He told his sons that even Chachamim, who say that the Mitzvah is only until midnight, agree that mid'Oraisa the Mitzvah is until dawn. They say until midnight to distance people from transgressing.
(Mishnah): Chelev and limbs may be burned on the Mizbe'ach until dawn.
The Mishnah does not mention that (mid'Oraisa) the Korban Pesach may be eaten until dawn.
Contradiction (Beraisa): The following Mitzvos extend until dawn -- the evening Shema, Hallel on Pesach night, and eating the Korban Pesach.
Resolution (Rav Yosef): Our Mishnah is like R. Elazar ben Azaryah, the Beraisa is like R. Akiva:
(Beraisa - R. Elazar ben Azaryah): It says, "v'Achlu Es ha'Basar ba'Lailah ha'Zeh," and "v'Avarti v'Eretz Mitzrayim ba'Lailah ha'Zeh" -- just like the latter was at midnight, the [deadline of] the former is at midnight;
R. Akiva says, the Korban Pesach is eaten "b'Chipazon" (in haste) -- until the time of haste (dawn, when Mitzrayim compelled us to leave.
Question: If so, why must it say "ba'Lailah"?
Answer: One might have thought that it may be eaten during the day like other Kodshim -- "ba'Lailah" teaches, it may be eaten only at night.
Question: According to R. Elazar, "ha'Zeh" (in "v'Achlu...") is needed for the Gezeirah Shavah -- but according to R. Akiva, what do we learn from it?
Answer: It is needed to forbid eating the Korban Pesach on another night;
One might have thought, since the Korban Pesach is Kodshim Kalim like Shelamim, just as Shelamim may be eaten for two days and a night, Pesach (its Zeman Achilah begins at night) may be eaten for two nights and a day!
R. Elazar says, we already know this from "v'Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker."
R. Akiva says, we could have understood that to refer to the second morning.
R. Elazar says, whenever it says "Boker," it refers to the next morning.
Other Tana'im argue as R. Elazar and R. Akiva do:
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): "Sham Tizbach Es ha'Pesach ba'Arev k'Vo ha'Shemesh Mo'ed Tzeischa mi'Mitzrayim" -- you slaughter in the Erev (afternoon), you eat k'Vo ha'Shemesh (at night), you burn (leftovers) at Mo'ed Tzeischa mi'Mitzrayim (in the morning);
R. Yehoshua says, you slaughter in the Erev, you eat from k'Vo ha'Shemesh until Mo'ed Tzeischa mi'Mitzrayim (morning).
(Presumably, R. Eliezer holds that it may be eaten only until midnight -- if not, R. Yehoshua does not argue with him!)
(R. Aba): All agree that Bnei Yisrael were redeemed from Mitzrayim at night -- "Hotzi'acha Hash-m Elokecha mi'Mitzrayim Lailah";
All agree that they left Mitzrayim during the day -- "mi'Macharas ha'Pesach Yatz'u Venei Yisrael";
They argue about what was the time of haste:
R. Elazar says that it was midnight, when Mitzrayim were hasty (to send Yisrael away);
R. Akiva says that it was morning, when Yisrael consented to go.
Support (Beraisa) Question: It says, "Hotzi'acha Hash-m Elokecha mi'Mitzrayim Lailah" -- but Yisrael left during the day, "mi'Macharas ha'Pesach Yatz'u Venei Yisrael"!
Answer: The redemption began at night.
LEAVING MITZRAYIM WITH WEALTH
(D'vei R. Yanai): "Daber Na b'Oznei ha'Am" -- "Na" is a request;
Hash-m asked Moshe to ask Yisrael to request gold and silver vessels from Mitzrayim, in order that Avraham would not have a complaint that the prophecy (at Bris Bein ha'Besarim) of affliction was fulfilled, but the prophecy of leaving with great wealth was not fulfilled.
Yisrael (to Moshe): It is enough if we ourselves will leave!
A parable: people told a prisoner, "Tomorrow you will be freed, and you will receive great wealth"; he requested, "Take me out today, I do not ask for anything else!"
"Va'Yash'ilum" -- this teaches that Yisrael took Mitzrayim's property against their will.
Version #1: It was against the will of the Mitzriyim -- "u'Nevas Bayis Techalek Shalal";
Version #2: It was against the will of Yisrael, because it was a burden to carry it.
(R. Ami): "Va'Yenatzlu Es Mitzrayim" -- Yisrael emptied out Mitzrayim like a Metzudah (trap) without grain (to attract birds);
(Reish Lakish): They emptied Mitzrayim like the Metzulah (depths) is empty of fish.
"Eheyeh Asher Eheyeh" -- Hash-m told Moshe to tell Yisrael that He is with us in our slavery in Mitzrayim, He will be with us in servitudes of other kingdoms.
Moshe: They are suffering, why must You tell them about future afflictions?
Hash-m: Tell them "Eheyeh Shelachani Aleichem" (do not allude to future servitudes; Maharsha - this was Hash-m's intent from the beginning).
(R. Avahu) Question: "Aneni Hash-m Aneni" -- why did Eliyahu ask twice that Hash-m answer him?
Answer: He asked Hash-m to bring fire from Shamayim to consume everything on the Mizbe'ach, and to distract people, so they will not say that it was done through witchcraft -- "V'Atah Hasibosa Es Libam Achoranis."
THE TIME FOR THE MORNING SHEMA
(Mishnah) Question: What is the time to say the morning Shema?
Answer #1: The Mitzvah begins when it is light enough to distinguish between Techeles and white;
Answer #2 (R. Eliezer): It begins when one can distinguish between Techeles and [the color of green] leeks, and lasts until sunrise;
Answer #3 (R. Yehoshua): It extends until the third hour of the day, for this is when kings rise.
One who says Shema after this does not lose (he is not punished for saying it now, but he does not fulfill the Mitzvah), this is like learning [any other part of] Torah.
(Gemara) Question: What does it mean "between Techeles and white"?
Suggestion: It means, between shearings dyed Techeles to white shearings.
Rejection: Even at night, one can distinguish them!
Answer: It means, between the Techeles in shearings (the parts that absorbed the dye) to the white parts.
(Beraisa - R. Meir) (Answer #4 to Question (a)): It begins when one can distinguish between a wolf and a dog;
Answer #5 (R. Akiva): It begins when one can distinguish between a donkey and a wild donkey.
Answer #6 (Acherim): It begins when one can recognize a friend four Amos away.
(Rav Huna): The Halachah follows Acherim.
(Abaye): The Halachah follows Acherim regarding the time for Tefilin, it follows Vatikin (humble people who treasure the Mitzvos) regarding Shema:
(R. Yochanan): Vatikin finish the morning Shema at sunrise.
Support (Beraisa): Vatikin finish Shema at sunrise, in order to be Somech Ge'ulah to Tefilah (to begin Shemoneh Esreh right after Ga'al Yisrael, the blessing after Shema, which discusses redemption from Mitzrayim), and to pray during the day (according to all opinions).
(R. Zeira): They learn from "Yira'ucha Im Shamesh."
SEMICHAS GE'ULAH L'TEFILAH
(R. Yosi Ben Elyakim): Anyone who is Somech Ge'ulah to Tefilah (Tosfos - and prays after sunrise) will not be harmed that day.
Question (R. Zeira): I am Somech Ge'ulah to Tefilah, yet I get harmed!
Answer (R. Yosi): You consider yourself harmed because you must bring myrtle to the king? You should pay to behold his countenance!
(R. Yochanan): A person should strive to see Jewish kings, and even Nochri kings, so that if he merits he will perceive the difference between Malchei Yisrael (Mashi'ach) and Nochri kings.
Rav Beruna delighted to do Mitzvos; once, he was Somech Ge'ulah to Tefilah, and did not cease smiling the entire day.
Question: How can one be Somech Ge'ulah to Tefilah? R. Yochanan taught that before Shemoneh Esreh one must say, "Hash-m Sefasai Tiftach...," and afterwards one must say "Yiheyu l'Ratzon..."!
Answer #1 (R. Elazar): R. Yochanan requires saying "Hash-m Sefasai..." at Ma'ariv, but not at Shacharis, when one must be Somech Ge'ulah to Tefilah.
Rejection: R. Yochanan said that a Ben Olam ha'Ba is one who is Somech Ge'ulah to Tefilah at Ma'ariv!
Answer #2 (R. Elazar): He requires saying "Hash-m Sefasai..." at Minchah, when there is no Ge'ulah to be Somech to Tefilah.
Answer #3 (Rav Ashi): He requires saying it at every Tefilah; since Chachamim enacted it to be said with Tefilah, it is like part of Tefilah.
Support - Question: How is it possible to be Somech Ge'ulah to Tefilah at Ma'ariv -- we must say "Hashkiveinu" (the second Berachah after Shema, which does not mention Ge'ulah)!
Answer: Since Chachamim appended it to the first Berachah (of Ge'ulah) after Shema, it is like part of Ge'ulah.
Similarly, "Hash-m Sefasai..." is like part of Tefilah.
Question: "Yiheyu l'Ratzon Imrei Fi..." could refer to what was said, or to what will be said -- why did Chachamim enact to say it after Tefilah, and not before?
Answer (R. Yehudah, son of R. Shimon ben Pazi): Since David said it after 18 Tehilim, we say it after 18 Berachos.
Question: It is the end of Tehilim 19!
Answer: (He holds that) "Ashrei ha'Ish..." and "Lamah Ragshu Goyim," which we count as separate Tehilim, are really one.
(R. Yehudah, son of R. Shimon ben Pazi): David said 103 Tehilim before saying Halelukah, until he discusses the downfall of the wicked -- "u'Resha'im Od Einam... Halelukah."
Question: This is Tehilim 104!
Answer "Ashrei ha'Ish..." and "Lamah Ragshu Goyim" are really one.
(R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): Every passage (of Tehilim) that was beloved to David, he began with and ended with "Ashrei" (Tosfos - he ended it similar to its beginning);
He began the first Tehilah with "Ashrei ha'Ish..." and ended it with "Ashrei Kol Chosei Vo."