BERACHOS 56 (16 Nisan) - Today's Dafyomi study material has been sponsored by Mrs. Reva Ehrlich, who presently resides in Yerushalayim, in memory of her husband, the Chazan Rav Moshe ben Shalom Ehrlich, A"H, a distinguished Shliach Tzibbur and teacher of Torah.

[56a - 57 lines; 56b - 56 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rav Nisim Ga'on 56b

The words "u'Vasrah Yir'ah, di'Chsiv" ובתרה יראה דכתיב

should be "v'Kisrah Yir'ah, di'Chsiv" וכתרה יראה דכתיב


1)[line 2]אמריתוAMRITU- you say/claim

2)[line 3]משחרי לך פרסאיMESHACHAREI LACH PARSA'EI- the Persians (alt. Parthians, a people who lived between the Caspian Sea and the Euphrates, whose empire rivaled Rome) will force you to do public service

3)[line 4]גרבי בךGARBEI BACH- they will seize you

4)[line 4]רעיי בך שקציRAIYEI BACH SHAKTZEI- they will force you to graze swine (BEN YEHOYADA)

5)[line 4]חוטרא דדהבאCHUTRA D'DAHAVA- a golden rod, which represents the tariff that the Romans will be forced to submit (ibid.)

6)[line 8]קשייתאKASHYASA- date or olive pits

7)[line 14]אקרינן בחלמיןAKRINAN B'CHELMIN- we were made to read [the following words] in our dreams

8)[line 16]עוצבא דלבךUTZVA D'LIBACH- heartbreak

9)[line 19]בישותיהBISHUSEI- the (normal) adverse explanation of the verse

10)[line 24]אכפה לךACHPAH LACH- she will finally force you

11)[line 25]דביתהו שכיבאDEVIS'HU SHECHIVA- your wife will die

12)[line 29]לפכוחי פחדךL'FAKUCHEI PACHADACH- to lessen you sorrow and worry

13)[line 31]אימתך נפלת בעלמאEIMSACH NAFLAS B'ALMA- you will be world-renowned and revered

14)[line 31]בדיינאBEDAYNA- treasury

15)[line 33]חסאCHASA- lettuce

16)[line 33]דניDANEI- [wine] barrels

17)[line 33]עיףIF- will double

18)[line 34]בסים חמרךBASIM CHAMAREICH- your wine will be exceptionally sweet (of superior quality)

19)[line 34]תקיף חמרךTAKIF CHAMAREICH- your wine will go sour

20)[line 36]מדלי עסקךMADLEI ISKEICH- your [wine] business will boom (lit. will be elevated like a palm tree)

21)[line 36]חליCHALEI- will be inexpensive (lit. sweet)

22)[line 36]רומנא דקדחיRUMANA D'KADCHEI- a pomegranate that grew

23)[line 37]עשיק עסקךASHIK ASAKEICH- your wares (your wine) will be high-priced, like the pomegranate

24)[line 37]קאוי עסקךKAVI ASAKEICH- your wares (your wine) will turn stale [and taste like a pomegranate]

25)[line 37]ביראBIRA- a pit

26)[line 38]מתבעי עסקךMISBA'EI ISKEICH- your wares (your wine) will be in demand

27)[line 38]פתאPITA- the bread

28)[line 39]איסדןISDAN- pillow

29)[line 40]גהיטGAHIT- was erased (the Sofer mistakenly wrote an unnecessary letter Vav in the word Chamor and erased it; however, the erasure was still noticeable)

30)[line 41]דשא ברייתאDASHA BERAISA- the outside door

31)[line 42]ככי ושני דנתורKACHEI V'SHINEI D'NASUR- molars and front teeth that fell out

32)[line 43]גרגלידי דלפתאGARGELIDEI D'LIFTA- turnip tops

33)[line 43]תרין קולפי בלעתTREIN KULFEI BELA'AS- you are going to suffer two blows [to the head]

34)[line 44]קמנצוKA'MINTZU- were fighting

35)[line 44]לפרוקינהוL'FARUKINHU- to break up the fight between them

36)[line 44]מחוהוMACHUHU- they hit him (Rava)

37)[line 45]דלו למחוייה אחריתיDALU L'MECHUYEI ACHARITI- they raised [them (their sticks)] to hit him again

38)[line 45]מסתייMISTAYEI- [it is] enough

39)[line 45]תרין חזאיTREIN CHAZA'I- I saw [only] two [turnip tops in my dream; therefore, I do not deserve any more blows]

40)[line 45]אשיתאASHISA- (a) the foundations of the walls of my house (RASHI to Bava Kama 50a); (b) the walls (ARUCH)

41)[line 46]בלא מצריםB'LO METZARIM- boundless

42)[line 46]אפדנאAPADNA- (a) palace; (b) courtyard (ARUCH)

43)[line 46]כסיין אבקיהCHASYAN AVKEI- we were covered with its dust

44)[line 47]לבינתאLEVEINASA- brick

45)[line 47]מבדרןMEVADRAN- will be widespread

46)[line 48]אבקע רישיAVKA REISHEI- that my head was split open

b)[line 48]נתר מוקריNASAR MOKREI- my brain started to fall out

47)[line 48]אודרא מבי סדיא נפיקUDRA MI'BEI SADYA NAFIK- the stuffing (or feathers) will come out of your pillow

48)[line 49]ארבאARBA- a boat

49)[line 51]בדידך קיימאB'DIDACH KAIMA- it was dependent upon you

50)[line 53]ריש טורזינאREISH TURZINA- of the minister in charge of the king's wardrobe

51)[line 55]תכלאTICHLA- a worm

52)[line 56]שיראיSHIRA'EI- silk garments

53)[last line]אנא אמאי?ANA AMAI?- How did I [get into this predicament]?


54)[line 1]כפיתו תרין ארזי בחבלאKEFITU TREIN ARZEI B'CHAVLA- they [bent down and] lashed to the ground two cedar trees (the trunks of which were planted some distance apart)

55)[line 3]אצטליק רישיהITZTALIK REISHEI- his head was split into two parts

56)[line 6]לחייLECHAYAI- my jaws

57)[line 6]גדודי רומיGEDUDEI ROMI- bands of Roman troops

58)[line 12]אדרותאADRUSA- glory; distinction

59)[line 14]דקטיף לי כוכבאD'KATIF LI KOCHAVA- [I dreamed] that I plucked a star [from the sky]

60)[line 16]סיהראSIHARA- the moon

61)[line 17]דריכנא בטונא דאסאDARICHNA B'TUNA D'ASA- I trampled on a canopy of myrtle

62)[line 18]טונא מעילאי והוא מתתאיTUNA ME'ILA'I V'HU MI'TASA'I- the canopy was above me and I was underneath it

63)[line 18]פורייהPURYEI- my bed

64)[line 20]פרחןFARCHAN- they flew away

65)[line 21]קליפנא ביעיKALIFNA BEI'EI- I peeled eggs

66)[line 21]שכבי קא משלחתSHICHVEI KA MESHALCHAS- you stripped dead bodies [of the possessions that were buried with them]

67)[line 22]האי גלימא דמכסאHAI GELIMA D'MICHSA- that cloak that you are wearing (lit. that is covering)

68)[line 23]קפודקיאKAPUDKIYA- to Cappadocia, a district of Asia Minor

69)[line 24]קפא כשוראKAFA KESHURA- both words mean "beam." The first part of the word "Kapudkiya" is Kafa, which is the Greek word for the Persian or Aramaic Keshura. See the Aruch for a different explanation.

70)[line 24]דיקא עשרהDEIKA ASARA- both words mean "ten." The second part of the word "Kapudkiya" is Deika, which is the Greek word for Asarah. See the Aruch for a different explanation.

71)[line 39]"מסבכו""MI'SUBCHO"- "from his thicket" (Yirmeyahu 4:7) - The verse compares Nevuchadnetzar to a lion waiting to ambush his prey from a thicket in the forest.

72)[line 40]"[ויגד לה את כל לבו ויאמר לה מורה לא עלה על ראשי כי נזיר אלקים אני מבטן אמי] אם גלחתי וסר ממני כחי [וחליתי והייתי ככל האדם]""[VA'YAGED LAH ES KOL LIBO, VA'YOMER LAH, 'MORAH LO YA'ALEH AL ROSHI, KI NEZIR ELOKIM ANI MI'BETEN IMI,] IM GULACHTI V'SAR MIMENI KOCHI [V'CHALISI V'HAYISI K'CHOL ADAM.']" - "[So he told her all that was in his heart, and he said to her, 'A razor may not pass over my head, for I have been a Nazir unto HaSh-m from the day that I left my mother's womb], and if I would be shaven my strength would leave me, [and I would become like any other man.']" (Shoftim 16:17) (SHIMSHON REVEALS HIS SECRET)

(a)Shimshon's marriage to the Philistine woman, Delilah, was the beginning of his downfall, as Chazal said: "Shimshon went after his eyes, and therefore they poked out his eyes."

(b)The verse describes how the Pelishtim lost no time in sending officers to talk her into spying on Shimshon and discovering the secret to his strength, offering her a handsome reward for her services, and how she, for her part, lost no time in fulfilling her new role.

(c)Three times Delilah attempted to discover the source of Shimshon's strength by means of a direct question put to her unsuspecting lover; three times he gave her false information. On each occasion, she carried out his instructions to the letter, first by tying him up with seven thin fresh cords, then with thick new ropes, and finally by weaving the seven locks of his head on to the weft of the weaving-loom, while the enemy waited in the adjoining room, ready to pounce on him and take him captive. Three times she announced, "The Pelishtim are upon you, Shimshon," to see whether he had told her the truth. Each time, he snapped the rope and pulled out the weaving-loom with ease.

(d)After scolding Shimshon for professing to love her and then lying to her, she changed her strategy. She began to torment him by withholding herself from him during their moments of intimacy, while taunting him with her words, until finally he broke down and told her the truth. She knew it was the truth because Shimshon would not utter the Name of HaSh-m in connection with something that was not true, and this was the first time during their conversations that he mentioned it.

(d)She put him to sleep on her knees (as she had done on each of the previous occasions) and she called the barber, who was waiting in the next room together with the Philistine princes (who were waiting to capture Shimshon), and ordered him to shave off the seven locks of Shimshon's hair. Then she began to torment him, but his strength had left him. She called out, "The Pelishtim are upon you, Shimshon," as she had done on the previous occasions. Shimshon awoke from his sleep and declared, "I will go out like the other times and gather strength." He did not know that this time HaSh-m had left him. He was unable to snap the ropes with which he was bound.

(e)The princes (with remuneration for Delilah's services) rushed into the room and seized Shimshon. They poked out his eyes and brought him down to Azah, where they bound him in fetters and incarcerated him. They made him grind their corn, a difficult and degrading task, and relate the stories of his mighty deeds, reveling in his degradation. They also brought their wives to the prison, forcing him to be intimate with them, in the hope that they would bear children from him who would be as strong as he had been.

(f)In the end, however, Shimshon managed to destroy them. See Background to Berachos 12:23.

73)[line 41]"כהקיר ביר מימיה הרואה [כן הקרה רעתה]""K'HAKIR BIR MEIMEHA [KEN HEKERAH RA'ASAH]"- "Like a well keeps its water fresh, [so she keeps fresh her wickedness]" (Yirmeyahu 6:7) - The prophet reprimands the inhabitants of the city of Yerushalayim for their sins

74)[line 42]"[עתה] הנה בטחתי לך על משענת הקנה הרצוץ [הזה על מצרים אשר יסמך איש עליו ובא בכפו ונקבה כן פרעה מלך מצרים לכל הבטחים עליו]""[ATAH] HINEI BATACHTA LECHA AL MISH'ENES HA'KANEH HA'RATZUTZ [HA'ZEH AL MITZRAYIM, ASHER YISAMECH ISH ALAV U'VA V'CHAPO U'NEKAVAH, KEN PAR'OH MELECH MITZRAYIM L'CHOL HA'BOTCHIM ALAV." - "[Now] behold you have placed your trust on that splintered cane [on Egypt, which, if a person leans on it, it will enter his palm and puncture it, so, too, Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and all who rely on him." (Melachim II 18:21) (RAVSHAKEI AND SANCHERIV)

(a)In the fourteenth year of Chizkiyahu's reign, Sancheriv — after having exiled the ten tribes — turned to conquering the kingdom of Yehudah. He succeeded in seizing all the fortified cities, and set his sights on Yerushalayim. When Chizkiyahu apologized for having rebelled against him, he imposed on him a hefty fine. To pay this fine, Chizkiyahu found it necessary to empty the Temple treasury and even to dismantle the valuable doors of the Heichal, all of which he handed to Sancheriv.

(b)However, the king of Ashur (Assyria) tricked Chizkiyahu. Even though Chizkiyahu paid the fine, Sancheriv sent a large army to besiege Yerushalayim under three of his leading generals, one of whom was Ravshakei, an apostate Jew.

(c)Ravshakei called for the king to appear and listen to his message, but three dignitaries appeared on the city wall instead, led by Elyakim ben Chilkiyah, who was in charge of the king's household. Addressing himself to Chizkiyahu, Ravshakei proceeded to chide Chizkiyahu for placing his trust in Egypt, whom he compared to a broken cane, which — aside from being useless for leaning on — leaves the hand that attempts to lean on it full of splinters. Worse than that, he mocked the king for trusting in HaSh-m, Who, he assured him, would not save him, in spite of all the king's efforts to clear Yisrael of all the Bamos and forbidden altars. On the contrary, he asserted, it was with HaSh-m's blessing that the Assyrian army had reached Yerushalayim, and Chizkiyahu's soldiers, in their weak state, were no match for his. He challenged the king to provide 2,000 men who would be able to find 2,000 riders to man the 2,000 chariots that he would offer him, whereas each of the numerous Assyrian generals had a minimum of 2,000 troops under his command.

(d)At that point, Elyakim ben Chilkiyahu and the other dignitaries pleaded with Ravshakei to stop speaking in Lashon ha'Kodesh and speak instead in Aramaic, which they understood but the people did not. Their intention was that the people should not hear his harsh words (which, they claimed, did not concern them), but Ravshakei merely laughed at them. He pointed out that his words were not meant merely for Chizkiyahu, but for all of the starving people who were sitting on the wall, and — following the hunger that would accompany the ensuing siege — would soon be eating their feces and drinking their urine. In fact, the gist of his words was to convince the people to turn their backs on Chizkiyahu and surrender to Sancheriv.

(e)Tragically, what Ravshakei said until now was nothing compared to what he was about to say. Pointing out how no god had saved any nation from the hand of Sancheriv, he went on to compare HaSh-m (Keva'yachol) to all the other gods. Just as they had not succeeded in stopping Sancheriv, HaSh-m (Keva'yachol) would not succeed either.

(f)Following Ravshakei's blasphemous speech, the three men rent their garments and went to inform Chizkiyahu ha'Melech, who did likewise when he heard what Ravshakei had said.

(g)Finally, Ravshakei the apostate instructed the people to ignore the Chizkiyahu's vain promises that HaSh-m would save them. He invited them to surrender to Sancheriv and form a treaty with him. In return, Sancheriv would grant them freedom to eat of their vines and fig-trees and to drink the water from the wells, until the time when he would transplant them to a land as beautiful as their own (with reference to Africa). Indeed, this was consistent with the method of the king of Ashur, who moved all the nations that he conquered from one land to another to make it more difficult to rebel against him.

(h)The only positive aspect of Ravshakei's speech (which was not his own words but those of his master, Sancheriv), was his inferred praise of Eretz Yisrael. For this, HaSh-m rewarded Sancheriv by conferring upon him the title, "The great and venerated Asnapar" (Ezra 4:10).

(i)Chizkiyahu prayed fervently to HaSh-m and sent the messengers who brought him the news of Ravshakei's blasphemy to Yeshayah ha'Navi for further instructions. After issuing a stinging attack against Sancheriv for daring to insult HaSh-m and Yisrael in the brazen manner that he did, Yeshayah informed Chizkiyahu that his Tefilos had been answered, and he assured him that he had nothing whatsoever to fear. Sure enough, Sancheriv, the king of Ashur, was forced to return to his country immediately to repulse an attack by Tarhakei, king of Kush. He later returned to besiege Yerushalayim with what must have been one of the largest armies the world has ever seen (185,000 officers, each with a minimum of 2,000 men under his command). He initially encamped in Nov (a town near Yerushalayim) with intent to take up the siege of Yerushalayim where he had left off. On the following night he began the siege, and on that very night his entire army died.

(j)The angel (Micha'el) burned their bodies, leaving their clothes intact. This was because Ashur descended from Shem, who, together with his brother Yefes, covered their father's body when they discovered him lying naked in his tent. Therefore, HaSh-m ordered the angel to burn their bodies but not their clothes.

(k)The handful of survivors, including Sancheriv, his two sons, and Nevuchadnetzar fled to Assyria in disgrace. A short time later, he was murdered by his own two sons as he went to worship in the temple of his god Nisroch (this idol was a plank from Noach's ark which touched ground at Mount Ararat, which was in Sancheriv's territory).

(l)His sons assassinated him, the Midrash relates, because they heard him say that if Nisroch would save him from the princes whose sons had died on his account, then he would sacrifice his two sons to his god as a thanksgiving offering.

75a)[line 43]קראKARA- pumpkin

b)[line 43]קוראKORA- the soft, new, green growth of palm branches that is edible until it hardens into wood

c)[line 44]קיראKIRA- wax

d)[line 44]קניאKANYA- a reed

76)[line 49]נעשית לו שירה נאהNA'ASEIS LO SHIRA NA'AH- he will have a good day (lit. pleasant song will be made for him)

77)[line 52]טייעא בעלמאTAYA B'ALMA- a simple Arab merchant, as opposed to Yishmael, the son of Avraham

78)[line 54]"[ויאמר דוד אל נתן חטאתי לה' ויאמר נתן אל דוד] גם ה' העביר חטאתך לא תמות]""[VA'YOMER DAVID EL NASAN, 'CHATASI LA'HASH-M!' VA'YOMER NASAN EL DAVID,] 'GAM HASH-M HE'EVIR CHATASCHA; LO TAMUS!'" - "[And David said to Nasan, 'I sinned to HaSh-m!' And Nasan said to David,] 'Also HaSh-m has removed your sin; you will not die!'" (Shmuel II 12:13) (DAVID'S SIN IS PARTIALLY FORGIVEN)

(a)Although Chazal explain that David was guilty neither of adultery with Bas Sheva nor of the murder of Uriyah ha'Chiti (see Background to Sanhedrin 107:8), nevertheless Nasan ha'Navi specifically accused him for "killing Uriyah ha'Chiti and taking his wife as his own," adding that he had killed Uriyah ha'Chiti "through the swords of the people of Amon."

(b)The Navi had already warned him earlier that many of his descendents would die by the sword on account of what he did. He added that although David had acted in secret, HaSh-m would punish him in public, for that is how HaSh-m deals with someone who creates a Chilul HaSh-m.

(c)When David reacted by confessing his sin and repenting, the Navi told him that HaSh-m accepted his Teshuvah and that he would not die as he deserved, and as he himself had said he should. However, because he angered HaSh-m by causing a Chilul HaSh-m, the baby that Bas Sheva was expecting would die. Moreover, one of his children (Avshalom) would openly rebel against him and take his wives (Michal and Ritzpah bas Ayah) before his very eyes.