BERACHOS 34 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

[34a - 42 lines; 34b - 54 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 34a [line 40]:

"b'Hoda'ah Techilah v'Sof" בהודאה תחילה וסוף

See Insights to Berachos 34:3


1)[line 1]חברותא כלפי שמיא מי איכא?CHAVRUSA KELAPEI SHEMAYA MI IKA?- can you treat HaSh-m as you would treat your friend (lit. is there companionship with regard to Heaven)? The Gemara is answering that it is not feasible that a person would not concentrate during the first verse of Keri'as Shema.

2)[line 2]מחינן ליה במרזפתא דנפחאMACHINAN LEI B'MARZAFTA D'NAFCHA- we teach him to have Kavanah, using punishment if necessary (lit. we strike him with a smith's hammer)

3)[line 6]סרבןSARVAN- one who refuses

4)[line 8]מפני הטרוףMIPNEI HA'TEIRUF- because he may get confused

5)[line 10]הבטחתוHAVTACHASO- he is certain

6)[line 14]הקדיחתו מלחHIKDICHASO MELACH- it was ruined due to over-salting

7)[line 15]מהבהבMEHAVHEV- prepare himself as if he were about to stand up

8)[line 17]שאורSE'OR- sourdough, a very heavily fermented dough that is mixed with fresh dough to cause it to rise


9)[line 8]קידהKIDAH- a method of bowing, where only the head and thumbs are on the ground. When reverting to a standing position, only the thumbs are used, and not the arms (RASHI to Sukah 53a DH v'Zo and DH Itla)

10)[line 8]על אפיםAL APAYIM- on the face

11)[line 9]"ותקד בת שבע אפים ארץ [ותשתחו למלך ותאמר יחי אדני המלך דוד לעלם]""VA'TIKOD BAS SHEVA APAYIM ERETZ, [VA'TISHTACHU LA'MELECH, VA'TOMER, 'YECHI ADONI HA'MELECH L'OLAM!']" - "And Bas Sheva bowed on her face to the ground [and she prostrated herself, and said, 'May my lord the king live forever!']" (Melachim I 1:31) (THWARTING THE UPRISING OF ADONIYAHU)

(a)David ha'Melech was old and bed-ridden, and his son Adoniyahu, who was born immediately after Avshalom (David's oldest son, who was no longer alive), decided to take advantage of the situation. Encouraged by Yo'av, David's erstwhile commander of the army, and Evyasar, the deposed Kohen Gadol, took advantage of the situation. He invited all the king's sons (with the obvious exception of Shlomo) and the men of Yehudah and had himself announced king. He did not invite Nasan ha'Navi, Benayahu (the head of Beis Din), the strong men and other notables who were close to the king.

(b)When Nasan heard about this, he immediately informed Bas Sheva (the mother of Shlomo, whom David promised would replace him on the throne), who promptly brought news of the rebellion to her husband, the king, and reminded him of his promise to her. As planned, Nasan joined her and added weight to her words. Realizing the urgency of the situation, David responded with this verse. He deliberately ordered them to ride Shlomo on his personal mule, as only another king is permitted ride on the king's mule. As a final proof that he had appointed Shlomo as his successor, they were to place him on the throne.

(c)Tzadok, Nasan, and Benayahu, followed by the Kreisi and Pleisi (the archers and the sling-shooters, or the Urim v'Tumim), followed David's instructions to the letter. Finally, Nasan took the horn containing the anointing oil and anointed Shlomo, they blew the Shofar, and all the people cried out, "Long live the King!" The people began to play the flutes and an atmosphere of rejoicing filled the streets. Following this, they sat Shlomo on David's throne.

(d)Meanwhile, Adoniyahu and his guests heard the commotion but did not know what it was. Assuming that Yonasan, the son of Evyasar the Kohen, had just arrived with good news, he queried him about it. Yonasan told them exactly what had happened and they realized that they were defeated.

(e)The rebellion was over and all those connected with it dispersed.

12)[line 10]כריעהKERI'AH- kneeling

13)[line 10]ברכיםBIRKAYIM- the knees

14)[line 11]השתחואהHISHTACHAVA'AH- prostration while outstretching one's arms and legs

15)[line 14]מצלו אצלוייMATZLU ATZLUYEI- they lean towards their sides (so as not to be completely face-down)

16)[line 22]שלוחו של אדם כמותוSHELUCHO SHEL ADAM KEMOSO

"Shelucho Shel Adam Kemoso" means that the act performed by the agent (Shali'ach) of a person is like the act performed by the person himself. (Sources for this law are cited in Kidushin 41.)

17)[line 25]אהייא?A'HAYA?- During which [Berachah do we see that a mistake is a bad omen]?

18)[line 31]עושה פרקמטיא לתלמיד חכםOSEH PERAKMATYA L'TALMID CHACHAM- one who makes purchases and sales of merchandise with a Talmid Chacham

19)[line 39]יין המשומר בענביוYAYIN HA'MESHUMAR BA'ANAVAV- wine (that has not yet been produced) that is guarded in its grapes

20)[line 42]שגרSHAGAR- sent, dispatched

21)[line 43]חלצתו חמהCHALATZTO CHAMAH- the fever has left him

22)[line 48]הטיחHETI'ACH- thrust

23)[line 51]"[ודניאל כדי ידע די רשים כתבא על לביתה] וכוין פתיחן לה בעליתה נגד ירושלם וזמנין תלתה ביומא הוא ברך על ברכוהי ומצלא ומודע קדם אלהה כל קבל די הוא עבד מן קדמת דנה.""[V'DANIEL K'DI YEDA DI RESHIM KESAVA AL L'VAISEI] V'CHAVIN PESICHAN LEI B'ILISEI NEGED YERUSHLEM, V'ZIMNIN TELASA V'YOMA HU BARECH AL BIRCHOHI, U'METZALEI U'MODEI KADAM ELOKEI KOL KAVEIL DI HAVAH AVED MIN KADMAS DENAH. " - "[When Daniel learned that the writing (i.e. the decree) had been inscribed, he went home]. He had windows in his attic that opened towards Yerushalayim. Three times a day he would go down on his knees and pray and give thanks before G-d, just as he had done before this. " (Daniel 6:11) (DANIEL IGNORES THE DECREE AGAINST TEFILAH)

See Background to Berachos 31:18.

24)[line 52]בקתאBIKSA- (a) a valley; an open field (RASHI, TOSFOS DH Chatzif, 1st explanation); (b) a place in a valley where there are many passers-by and wayfarers (TOSFOS ibid. 2nd explanation)

25)[line 52]דמפרש חטאיהD'MEFARESH CHATA'EI- who publicizes his sins, when (a) they are not well-known; (b) they are sins between man and HaSh-m. Such sins should be kept private (Gemara Yoma 86b). TOSFOS DH Kesuy explains that a person who keeps his sins private will regret them more readily and be worthy of pardon, as it states in Berachos 12b.