[20a - 41 lines; 20b - 58 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 20b [line 7]:
"d'Rachamei Ninhu, Mahu d'Teima ... Ka Mashma Lan" דרחמי ננהו מהו דתימא ... קא משמע לן
Our Girsa is a combination of two Girsa'os:
(a) The original Girsa was (as cited by Tosfos DH bi'Tefilah)
"Mahu d'Teima ... Ka Mashma Lan d'Rachamei Ninhu" מהו דתימא ... קא משמע לן דרחמי לן. This is also the Girsa in some manuscripts.
(b) Rashi erased the words "Mahu d'Teima ... Ka Mashma Lan" מהו דתימא ... קא משמע לן
and his Girsa included only "d'Rachamei Ninhu" דרחמי ננהו (see Bach #1).
(c) It seems from Talmidei Rabeinu Yonah that their Girsa was only "Mahu d'Teima ... Ka Mashma Lan" מהו דתימא ... קא משמע לן and that the words "d'Rachamei Ninhu" דרחמי ננהו did not appear at all. This is also the Girsa in the manuscript of Beis Nasan.
1)[line 3]שב ואל תעשה שאניSHEV V'AL TA'ASEH SHAINI (SHEV V'AL TA'ASEH)
(a)Shev v'Al Ta'aseh Sha'ani literally means that a case of "sit and do no [action]" is different. The Rabanan are empowered by the Torah, when they see a definite need, to override laws of the Torah by instructing people not to perform certain actions.
(b)An example of definite need is when the Rabanan notice that a "Seyag" or "fence" must be built around the Torah to insure proper observance of the Torah's laws. For instance, when Rosh Hashanah falls on a Shabbos, the Rabanan decreed that the Shofar may not be blown, in order to prevent one from carrying a Shofar to a teacher for a distance of four Amos in Reshus ha'Rabim, thus violating the Melachah of Hotza'ah (see Background to Me'ilah 17:18).
(c)Our Gemara illustrates the definite need of "Kavod ha'Beriyos," respect for human beings, when the Mitzvah of Hashavas Aveidah is pushed aside in order to maintain the proper respect for the elderly and the Torah scholars.
2)[line 5]אתרחיש להו ניסאISRACHISH LEHU NISA- miracles happened for them (e.g. their prayers for rain were answered immediately)
3)[line 7]תנוייTENUYEI- learning
4)[line 9]האשה שכובשת ירק בקדרהHA'ISHAH SHE'KOVESHES YEREK B'KEDEIRAH (TUM'AH: YADOS)
(a)Any inedible part of a food that is used to hold the food (e.g. the stem of a fruit or a marrow-less bone with meat on its end) is considered an extension of the food. The word "Yad" means "arm" or "handle." It may bring Tum'ah to the food if it was touched by something Tamei. If the food was Tamei and the Yad touched food that was not Tamei, the Yad transfers Tum'ah to the other food.
(b)A Yad does not combine with the food to make up the requisite Beitzah in order to receive Tum'ah (Uktzin 1:1; see Background to Me'ilah 17:17).
(c)The woman mentioned here was pressing vegetables to eliminate their liquids so that they could be dried. As a result, the Yados, stems, of the vegetables broke off to the extent that one could not use them to pick up the food anymore. They therefore no longer bring Tum'ah to the food.
5a)[line 10]זיתים שכבשן בטרפיהןZEISIM SHE'KAVSHAN B'TARPEIHEN- olives with their leaves and stems that were pressed dry
b)[line 4]טרפיהןTARPEIHEN- their leaves
6)[line 11]הויות דרב ושמואל קא חזינא הכאHAVAYOS D'RAV U'SHMUEL KA CHAZINA HACHA- I see here the difficult questions of Rav and Shmuel (my teachers), i.e. he did not understand these Mishnayos properly
7)[line 12]תליסר מתיבתאTELEISAR MESIVTA- (a) thirteen ways of learning the Mishnayos and Beraisos (RASHI); (b) thirteen Yeshivos, each with its own method of learning (TOSFOS). Thirteen is not literal; the connotation is "many."
8)[line 13]שליף חד מסאניהSHALIF CHAD MESANEI- take off one of his shoes
9)[line 14]מצוח קא צוחינןMATZVACH KA TZAVCHINAN- we constantly cry out
10)[line 15]ולית דמשגח בןV'LEIS D'MASHGACH BAN- and HaSh-m does not pay attention to us (lit. and no one pays attention to us)
11)[line 19]כרבלתאKARBALTA- an over-garment that was overly conspicuous and was worn to attract attention due to its (a) blaring red color (ARUCH); or (b) costliness (RASHI, see Maharshal)
12)[line 17]מתון מתון, ארבע מאה זוזי שויאMASUN MASUN, ARBA ME'AH ZUZEI SHAVYA- Masun Masun, you are worth four hundred Zuzim (the name Masun is similar to the word Ma'san, two hundred; he repeated it to arrive at the sum of four hundred which the court required him to pay)
13)[line 26]קא מסתפיKA MISTEFEI- fear
14a)[line 26]דמיין באפאיDAMYAN B'APAI- they appear to me
b)[line 27]קאקי חיוריKAKEI CHIVREI- white geese
15)[line 30]שפיריSHAPIREI- good-looking
16)[line 31]לא קא מסתפי מר מעינא בישא?LO KA MISTEFEI MAR ME'EINA BISHA?- the master is not worried about the consequences of the Evil Eye?
17)[line 34]"בן פורת יוסף, בן פורת עלי עין ...""BEN PORAS YOSEF, BEN PORAS ALEI AYIN ..."- "Yosef is a fruitful bough, a fruitful bough next to a well ..." (Bereishis 49:22)
18)[line 35]עלי עיןOLEI AYIN- raised above the eye, i.e. beyond the power of the Evil Eye
19)[line 36]"... וידגו לרוב בקרב הארץ.""… V'YIDGU LA'ROV B'KEREV HA'ARETZ."- "and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the land." (Bereishis 48:16)
20)[line 3]מצות עשה שהזמן גרמאMITZVAS ASEH SHEHA'ZEMAN GERAMA
Mitzvos which must be performed at a specific time of the day are called Mitzvos Aseh sheha'Zeman Geraman. Some examples are Sukah, Lulav, Shofar and Tzitzis. Women are exempt from these Mitzvos, with the exception of Kidush on Friday night, Matzah on Pesach night, the Korban Pesach, Hakhel and Simchah on Pesach, Shavuos and Sukos.
21)[line 16]קדוש היוםKIDUSH HA'YOM (SHABBOS: KIDUSH HA'YOM)
Reciting or hearing Kidush on Friday night is a Mitzvas Aseh sheha'Zeman Gerama in which women are obligated. It consists of the verses from Bereishis 2:1-3 (preceded by the last words of Bereishis 1:31), the Berachah over a cup of wine, and the Berachah sanctifying the day of Shabbos.
22)[line 32]מארהME'EIRAH- a curse
23)[line 46]מדקדקים על עצמםMEDAKDEKIM AL ATZMAM- they act strictly with themselves
24)[line 48]מהרהרMEHARHER- reading with the eyes alone (or thinking the words) without vocalizing or forming them with the lips
25)[line 54]כדאשכחן בסיניKEDE'ASHKECHAN B'SINAI- that is, even though Bnei Yisrael at Sinai did not speak, since they were listening to the Aseres ha'Dibros they were considered Shome'a k'Oneh (one who hears can be considered as if he spoke those words) and were required to immerse in a Mikvah.