MISHNAH: MUKTZAH AS APPLIED TO GATHERING CUT WOOD
(R. Yehudah): One may bring wood from the field which was gathered before Yom Tov, and from a Karfaf even if it was not, provided it is near the city.
(R. Yosi): One may bring wood even a distance Karfaf, if guarded, provided that it is within the Techum Shabbos.
THE STRINGENT POSITION OF SHMUEL
(R. Yehudah citing Shmuel): One may bring wood only from that which is pre-gathered and in a Karfaf.
Question: But our Mishnah allows scattered wood in a Karfaf!?
Answer: Our Mishnah is the lone opinion of R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon (as he understands the Machlokes Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai) and not that of the Rabanan.
(Rava): One may not bring in (even pre-gathered) light foliage on Yom Tov because the owner knows that it will eventually get blown away and he does not rely on it (the owner may place a weight on the foliage before Shabbos to permit it).
THE MACHLOKES R. YEHUDAH AND R. YOSI OVER KARFAF
Question: How are we to understand their positions?
Does R. Yehudah require that the enclosure be both proximate to the city and have a lock (to which R. Yosi rep ies that either a lock or proximity suffices); or,
Does R. Yehudah require proximity (whether it has a lock or not) while R. Yosi holds that it hinges on whether it has a lock or not?
Answer: The Mishnah implies that R. Yosi adopts the two lenient positions (option 1 above, that either a lock or proximity is sufficient).
(R. Sela citing R. Yirmeyah): The Halachah follows the lenient position of R. Yosi.
MISHNAH: CHOPPING WOOD
One may not chop up a house-beam which broke on Yom Tov.
One may not chop wood using a chopper, a saw or a scythe on Yom Tov but only with a chopping-knife.
THE REISHA SPEAKS ABOUT MUKTZAH
Question: The Reisha seems to prohibit chopping wood (as in the case of the beam), yet the Seifa permits it with a chopping knife!?
Answer (R. Yehudah citing Shmuel): The Mishnah must be emended to teach, in the Reisha, a Halachah of Muktzah (the beam) and then the Halachos of chopping.
This understanding of our Mishnah is supported by the cited Beraisa.
THE PROHIBITION OF USING AN AX
(R. Chinena b. Shalmaya citing Rav): This prohibition ax applies to the wide end not to the stout end of an ax.
Question: This is obvious, given that we only permit the chopping knife because it is not the skilled manner of chopping wood!?
Answer: We might have prohibited the male end of the ax lest it be exchanged with the sharp end.
(Alternate application of Rav's teaching): The permission to use a Kupitz is only on its male end, not on its female (wider) end.
Question: Is this not obvious, since that is the prohibition of Kardum!?
Answer: We might have only prohibited a Kardum (a skilled tool) but not a mixed skilled/non-skilled tool, where we might permit one end given that the other is permitted.
MISHNAH: APPLYING MUKTZAH TO A PREVIOUSLY SEALED ENCLOSURE
(Tana Kama): One may take fruit from a sealed enclosure which broke open on Yom Tov.
(R. Meir): One may even break open the enclosure to take fruit thereby.
R. MEIR'S HETER
Question: How could it be permitted to break open the enclosure, given the Isur of Setiras Ohel!?
Answer (R. Nechumi b. Ada citing Shmuel): The walls were simply rows of bricks without mortar.
Question: But they should still be Muktzah (as R. Nachman taught that leftover bricks are Muktzah if arranged)!?
Answer (R. Zeira): It is a Heter on Yom Tov (Ochel Nefesh but would not apply on Shabbos).
A Beraisa supports this understanding of the Mishnah.
(Shmuel): One may untie the ropes that tie the door of pits and caves, but not unravel nor cut the rope.
Ropes which tie the doors of Kelim may be untied, unraveled and cut, both on Shabbos and on Yom Tov.
Question: But the Beraisa differentiates (regarding doors in the Karka) between Shabbos (when they may be untied but not unraveled or cut) and Yom Tov (when they may be untied, unraveled and cut)!?
Answer: That Beraisa is the view of R. Meir who is lenient in our Mishnah.
Question: But the Beraisa teaches that Chachamim agree with R. Meir and differentiate between Shabbos and Yom Tov!?
Answer: Shmuel holds like another Beraisa which forbids unraveling and cutting the ropes on both Shabbos and Yom Tov.