AVODAH ZARAH 45 (14 Adar; Purim) - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas HaRav Ze'ev Wolf Rosengarten of Zurich, Switzerland, a person of "Sheleimus" in every way, who passed away on 14 Adar 5760. Dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit by his nephew and Talmid, Eli Rosengarten of Zurich.

1)

(a)Our Mishnah discusses mountains and hills that Nochrim have worshipped. What does the Tana Kama mean when he extrapolates from the Pasuk in Eikev "Lo Sachmod Kesef ve'Zahav aleihem ... '

1. ... 'Hein Mutarin'?

2. ... 'u'Mah she'Aleihen Asurin'?

(b)What is the Din regarding someone who worships a mountain?

(c)And what does Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili learn from the Pasuk in Re'ei "Eloheihem ... al he'Harim ... ve'al ha'Gevahos"?

(d)Seeing as an Asheirah is also attached to the ground, what is Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili's source to forbid Asheiros? Why does he not likewise Darshen (from the Pasuk there) "ve'Sachas Kol Eitz Ra'anan", 've'Lo Eitz Ra'anan Eloheihem'?

1)

(a)Our Mishnah discusses mountains and hills that Nochrim have worshipped. When the Tana Kama extrapolates from the Pasuk "Lo Sachmod Kesef ve'Zahav aleihem ... '

1. ... 'Hein Mutarin', he means that - not only may one derive benefit from the mountains (which the Nochrim worshipped) as they are, but that one may even mine a piece of mountain and make use of it.

2. ... 'u'Mah she'Aleihen Asurin', he means that - the silver and gold with which the Cana'anim cap the mountain-tops are forbidden.

(b)In spite of the earlier D'rashah, someone who worships a mountain is Chayav - since his intention is to serve Avodah-Zarah.

(c)Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili extrapolates from the Pasuk in Re'ei "Eloheihem ... al he'Harim ... ve'al ha'Gevahos" - 've'Lo he'Harim ve'ha'Gevahos Eloheihem' (that the mountains themselves do not become forbidden).

(d)Despite the fact that Asheiros are also attached to the ground (and the potential D'rashah, "ve'Sachas Kol Eitz Ra'anan", 've'Lo Eitz Ra'anan Eloheihem') Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili forbids them - due to the Pasuk in Re'ei "va'Ashereihen Tegade'un", which specifically forbids them..

2)

(a)In light of the Pasuk "va'Ashereihen Tegade'un", how does Rebbi Akiva Darshen "ve'Sachas Kol Eitz Ra'anan"?

(b)What problem do we initially have with Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili's opinion?

(c)According to Rami bar Chama Amar Resh Lakish, they argue over 'Tzipuy Har' (the gold that capped the mountains). What is Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili's source to permit it?

(d)How does he then explain the word "Aleihem" (the Tana Kama's source to forbid 'Tzipuy Har') which immediately follows "Pesilei Eloheihem"?

2)

(a)In light of the Pasuk "va'Ashereihen Tegade'un", Rebbi Akiva Darshens "ve'Sachas Kol Eitz Ra'anan" - as an indication of where the idols of Cana'an were to be found (wherever there was a tall mountain or a high hill, with a leafy tree on it), to assist Yisrael in their obligation to search and destroy all the idols.

(b)The initial problem with Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili's opinion is that - seeing as he agrees that the mountains themselves are Mutar ba'Hana'ah, in which point does he argue with the Tana Kama?

(c)According to Rami bar Chama Amar Resh Lakish, they argue over 'Tzipuy Har', which Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili permits - because it is Bateil to the mountain.

(d)And in his opinion, even though the word "Aleihem" (the Tana Kama's source to forbid 'Tzipuy Har') immediately follows "Pesilei Eloheihem", it pertains to "Pesilei Eloheihem" that is mentioned earlier in the Pasuk.

45b----------------------------------------45b

3)

(a)According to Rav Sheishes however, even Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili agrees that 'Tzipuy Har' is not considered part of the mountain and is therefore Asur, and their Machlokes is confined to one aspect of Asheirah. Which aspect? Which kind of Asheirah does the Tana Kama permit and Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili forbid?

(b)From which words of Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili do we deduce this?

(c)In which case will even the Rabbanan concede that 'T'fisas Y'dei Adam' renders the tree Asur?

3)

(a)According to Rav Sheishes however, even Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili will concede that 'Tzipuy Har' is not considered part of the mountain and is therefore Asur - and their Machlokes is confined to a tree that was not planted as an Asheirah, but was worshipped after it grew, which the Tana Kama permits and Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili forbids.

(b)And we deduce this from Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili himself, who gives the reason for the Isur because 'man's hand is involved' (i.e. the tree did not grow by itself, but because someone planted it), which is why it does not have the Din of 'Mechubar'.

(c)Even the Rabbanan will concede that 'T'fisas Yedei Adam' renders the tree Asur - in the event that it was planted initially as an Asheirah.

4)

(a)Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah Darshens "Eloheihem al he'Harim" and "va'Ashereihem Tisrefun ba'Eish", like Rebbi Yossi Ha'Gelili. How does he Darshen "ve'Sachas Kol Eitz Ra'anan"?

(b)How do we now know that he too, forbids a tree that was planted for one's private use and designated as an Asheirah only later?

(c)What do the Rabbanan learn from "va'Ashereihen Tisr'fun ba'Eish"?

(d)How do we answer the Kashya that surely, Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah also needs "va'Ashereihen Tisr'fun ba'Eish" for that (rather than for 'Ilan she'Nat'o ve'li'Besof Avdo')?

4)

(a)Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah Darshens "Eloheihem al he'Harim" and "va'Ashereihem Tisrefun ba'Eish" like Rebbi Yossi Ha'Gelili, and he Darshens "ve'Sachas Kol Eitz Ra'anan" - as an indication where to find the Avodah-Zarah of the Cana'anim (like Rebbi Akiva).

(b)And we know that he too forbids a tree that was planted for one's private use and designated as Asheirah later - because had he permitted it, he would have learned it from "Tachas Kol Eitz Ra'anan" like Rebbi Yossi Ha'Gelili (rather than Darshening it like Rebbi Akiva).

(c)The Rabbanan learn from "va'Ashereihen Tisr'fun ba'Eish" that - an Asheirah that was planted originally as an Asheirah, is forbidden.

(d)In answer to the Kashya that surely Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah also needs "va'Ashereihen Tisr'fun ba'Eish" for that (rather than for 'Ilan she'Nat'o ve'li'Besof Avdo') - that indeed, he does.

5)

(a)In fact, we conclude, Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah learns that even 'Ilan she'Nat'o ve'li'Besof Avdo' is Asur, from the Pasuk in Va'eschanan "va'Ashereihem Tegade'un". How does he learn it from there? What does "Tegade'un" imply?

(b)If on the other hand, he learns it from there, why did he quote the Pasuk "va'Ashereihem Tisr'fun ba'Eish"?

5)

(a)In fact, we conclude, Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah learns that even 'Ilan she'Nat'o ve'li'Besof Avdo' is Asur, from the Pasuk in Va'eschanan "va'Ashereihem Tegade'un" - because "Tegade'un" implies cutting down what grew later, whilst leaving the original tree intact.

(b)And when he quoted the Pasuk "va'Ashereihem Tisrefun ba'Eish", he meant that - if the Torah had not written "va'Ashereihem Tisr'fun ba'Eish" (to forbid a tree that was planted initially as an Asheirah), we would have learned it from "va'Ashereihem Tegade'un", implying that if one planted it originally for personal use and then dedicated it as an Asheirah, it would be permitted (like the Rabbanan).

6)

(a)The Rabbanan, who permit a tree that is planted initially for personal use, explain "va'Ashereihem Tegade'un" like Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi. What does Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi learn from there?

(b)What is the difference between "ve'Nitatztem es Mizbechosam" and "ve'Shibartem es Matzevosam"?

(c)A Beraisa cited by Rav Yosef states ' "ve'Nitatztem es Mizbechosam" ve'Hanach, "ve'Shibartem es Matzevosam". How do we initially explain this?

(d)On what dual basis do we object to this text?

(e)So how does Rav Huna interpret 've'Hanach'?

6)

(a)The Rabbanan, who permit a tree that is planted initially for personal use, explain "va'Ashereihem Tegade'un" like Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who learns from "va'Ashereihem Tegade'un" that - when Yisrael first entered Eretz Yisrael, they were initially obligated to cut down the main part of the tree, without bothering to uproot it completely, until such time as they had completed the conquest of Cana'an.

(b)"ve'Nitatztem es Mizbechosam" means - to demolish the Mizbechos (to take the stones apart), "ve'Shibartem es Matzevosam" - to smash the stones to pieces.

(c)A Beraisa cited by Rav Yosef states "ve'Nitatztem es Mizbechosam" Ve'hanach, "ve'Shibartem es Matzevosam", which we initially explain to mean that Yisrael were obligated to demolish the Cana'ani Mizb'chos, but not to burn them.

(d)We object to this text however - firstly, because of Takalah (that one may come to worship them) and secondly, due to the Pasuk in Va'eschanan "Pesilei Eloheihen Tisr'fun ba'Eish".

(e)Rav Huna therefore interprets ve'Hanach' to mean - temporarily, and what the Pesukim are saying is 'first to demolish the Mizb'chos, and then, after pursuing and defeating their enemies, to smash them completely.

7)

(a)What does Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah learn from the Pasuk in Re'ei "Abeid Te'abdun"?

(b)What do the Rabbanan learn from there?

(c)And what does Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah learn from the Pasuk there "Ve'ibadtem es Sh'mam min ha'Makom ha'Hu"?

(d)What do the Rabbanan learn from there?

7)

(a)Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah learns from the Pasuk in Re'ei "Abeid Te'abdun" - what the Rabbanan just learned (See 6a) from 've'Ashereihem Tegade'un" ...

(b)... whereashe Rabbanan learn from there that - when destroying idols, one must destroy them completely (down to the roots).

(c)Whereas Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah learns that - from the Pasuk there "Ve'ibadtem es Sh'mam min ha'Makom ha'Hu".

(d)The Rabbanan learn from there - the obligation to call Avodah-Zarah by a derogatory name.

8)

(a)Rebbi Eliezer in a Beraisa learns the obligation to totally destroy Avodah-Zarah from "Ve'ibadtem es Sh'mam". Where does Rebbi Akiva learn it from?

(b)What does Rebbi Akiva then learn from ...

1. ... "Ve'ibadtem es Sh'mam min ha'Makom ha'Hu"?

2. ... the Pasuk there "Shaketz Teshaktzenu ve'Sa'eiv Tesa'avenu ki Cheirem Hu"?

(c)They would change the name of an idol by the name of 'Beis Galya' to 'Beis Karya'. What is the difference in meaning between these two names?

(d)And what would they call an idol by the name of 'Ein Kol'?

(e)What is the significance of the change? What do the two names mean?

8)

(a)Rebbi Eliezer in a Beraisa learns the obligatation to totally destroy Avodah-Zarah from "Ve'ibadtem es Sh'mam", whereas Rebbi Akiva learns it from - "Abeid Te'abdun".

(b)Rebbi Akiva learns from ...

1. ... "Ve'ibadtem es Sh'mam min ha'Makom ha'Hu" - the obligation to call Avodah-Zarah by a derogatory name.

2. ... the Pasuk there "Shaketz Teshaktzenu ve'Sa'eiv Tesa'avenu ki Cheirem Hu" - that it is insufficient to just change its name, but that it must be a derogatory one, as we explained.

(c)They would change the name of an idol by the name of 'Beis Galya' which has connotations of a high place, to 'Beis Karya', which means - a lowly pit ...

(d)... and they would call an idol by the name of 'Ein Kol' - 'Ein Kotz' ...

(e)... from 'eye of the entire world' to 'a thorn in the eye'.

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