AVODAH ZARAH 8 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

1)

(a)We already discussed the Din of Kalanda, Satrunya and Kartesim. Our Mishnah, which reads 'Satarnura' and 'Kartisim', adds 'Yom Genusya shel Malcheihem'. What is 'Yom Genusya shel Malcheihem'?

(b)Which other two days does Rebbi Meir add?

(c)What do the Chachamim say about the latter date? When is the day of the king's death considered a festival and when is it not?

(d)The Mishnah now discusses the day that a Nochri shaves his beard and his 'B'luris', the day that he returns from a trip at sea and the day that he is set free from prison, on which they tended to celebrate. What is a 'B'luris'?

(e)What does the Tana say about all these occasions?

1)

(a)We already discussed the Din of Kalanda, Satrunya and Kartesim. Our Mishnah, which reads 'Satarnura' and 'Kartisim', adds 'Yom Genusya shel Malcheihem' - which is the day on which the king was crowned.

(b)Rebbi Meir adds - the king's birthday and the death of his predecessor.

(c)According to the Chachamim, the day of the king's 'Yohrtzeit' is only considered a festival - if they burned his predecessor's vessels and utensils when he died (as was customary in those days); otherwise not.

(d)The Mishnah now discusses the day that a Nochri shaves his beard and his 'B'luris' - long hair that is left at the back of the head after it has been shaved, and that is cut from year to year, the day that he returns from a trip at sea and the day that he is set free from prison, on which they tended to celebrate.

(e)The Tana rules in all these cases - that it is only considered a festival on that specific day and for that specific person exclusively.

2)

(a)Rav Chanan bar Rava gives the date for Kalanda as the eight days following Tekufas Teives. What date does he give for Satrunya?

(b)With whom did these dates originate?

(c)The Beraisa describes Adam ha'Rishon's mood from the time of his creation. Why was he depressed for the three-month period until the winter solstice (Tekufas Teives)?

(d)What did he do about it?

2)

(a)Rav Chanan bar Rava gives the date for Kalanda as the eight days following Tekufas Teives; for Satrunya, as - the days prior to it.

(b)These days originated - with Adam ha'Rishon, as we will now see.

(c)The Beraisa describes Adam ha'Rishon's mood from the time of his creation. The reason that he was depressed for the three-month period until mid-winter (Tekufas Teives) was - because he saw the days getting shorter and the nights longer, leading him to believe that this was the punishment of death that had been decreed upon him, as a result of his sin.

(d)So he fasted and Davened for the eight days preceding the Tekufah.

3)

(a)What caused Adam's Adam's depression to lift?

(b)What did he do about that ...

1. ... then?

2. ... in the following year?

(c)How will the opinion that Adam was created in Nisan, explain this, seeing as he had already experienced the days getting shorter (from Tekufas Tamuz)?

(d)Later - the nations of the world adopted these festivals and called them 'Kalanda' and 'Satrunya'. What was the basic difference between Adam's celebration then, and the celebration of the nations of the world?

3)

(a)His depression lifted however - when he saw the situation reverse from the day of the Tekufah, when the days started getting longer and the nights shorter.

(b)Realizing that this was simply a natural phenomenon...

1. ... he celebrated for eight days there and then, and ...

2. ... the following year - he fixed both eight-day periods as festivals.

(c)According to the opinion that Adam was created in Nisan, despite the fact that he had already experienced the days getting shorter (from Tekufas Tamuz) - it was the exceptional brevity of the days that depressed him.

(d)Later - the nations of the world adopted these festivals and called them 'Kalanda' and 'Satrunya', with the difference that - whereas Adam celebrated them in honor of Hash-m, they did so in honor of their gods.

4)

(a)Another Beraisa describes Adam's mood the first Motza'ei Shabbos after his creation. Why was he depressed?

(b)What did he and Chavah do about it?

(c)What caused his mood to change?

(d)What did he do about that?

4)

(a)Another Beraisa describes Adam's mood the first Motza'ei Shabbos after his creation. He was depressed - because the sun set (for the first time since his creation) and darkness set in. Here too, he thought that the world had become dark due to his sin.

(b)So he and Chavah - wept and fasted ...

(c)... until the morning, when they saw the dawn beak and realized that this was merely a natural phenomenon.

(d)As a result - he sacrificed a bull to Hash-m.

5)

(a)With regard to the bull that Adam sacrificed, the Tana quotes the Pasuk in Tehilim ... "Veseitiv la'Hashem mi'Shor Par Makrin Mafris". What is the significance of ...

1. ... the order of the words "Makrin Mafris"? What is special about this?

2. ... the spelling of the word "Makrin" (Rav Yehudah Amar Rav)?

(b)What did Rebbi Nachman bar Yitzchak reply when they asked that, on the contrary, "Makrin" implies the plural?

(c)What is the gist of David's Tefilah inherent in this Pasuk?

5)

(a)With regard to the bull that Adam sacrificed, the Tana quotes the Pasuk in Tehilim ... "Ve'seitiv la'Hashem mi'Shor Par Makrin Mafris". The significance of ...

1. ... the order of the words "Makrin Mafris" is that - the horns of the bull (the first Korban ever to be sacrificed) were created before the hoofs (in other words, the bull was created fully mature [even though the horns of a newborn calf generally grow only at a later stage]).

2. ... the spelling of the word "Makrin", says Rav Yehudah Amar Rav is that - the bull had only one horn on its forehead.

(b)When they asked that, on the contrary, "Makrin" implies the plural, Rebbi Nachman bar Yitzchak pointed out - that the word implied the singular by virtue of the fact that it was missing a 'Yud'.

(c)The gist of David's Tefilah inherent in this Pasuk is - a request that his Tefilos should succeed even more than the bull of Adam ha'Rishon.

6)

(a)Rav Masna asked whether, bearing in mind that it was the Romans who celebrated Kalanda, the prohibition of engaging in business with the adherents of Avodah-Zarah extended to the surrounding states, who did not worship that Avodah-Zarah. What is the She'eilah? Why should it?

(b)Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi rules that it is forbidden. What does Rebbi Yochanan say?

(c)Even those Poskim who tend to rule like Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi on principle, concede here that the Halachah is like Rebbi Yochanan. Why is that?

(d)What does the Beraisa say about ...

1. ... Saturnalya, Kartesim and the day of the coronation? What do they all have in common?

2. ... a Nochri who made a party to celebrate the birth of his son?

6)

(a)Rav Masna asked whether, bearing in mind that it was the Romans who celebrated Kalanda, the prohibition of engaging in business with the adherents of Avodah-Zarah extended to the surrounding states who did not worship that Avodah-Zarah - because they paid taxes to the Romans, part of which would inevitably be used for the sacrifices that the latter brought to their gods.

(b)Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi rules that it is forbidden. Rebbi Yochanan - restricts the prohibition to the adherents only.

(c)Even those Poskim who tend to rule like Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi on principle, concede here that the Halachah is like Rebbi Yochanan - because he has a Beraisa to support his opinion.

(d)The Beraisa rules that ...

1. ... the day before Saturnalya, Kartesim and the day of the coronation is forbidden, but not the day after.

2. ... only the actual day on which a Nochri made a party to celebrate the birth of his son is forbidden, but not the day after and not even the day before.

7)

(a)We learned in our Mishnah 'Yom Tiglachas B'no ... ve'Yom she'Yatza mi'Beis ha'Asurim Ein Asur Ela oso ha'Yom Bil'vad ve'oso ha'Ish'. What does Rav Ashi prove from the Lashon 've'oso ha'Ish'?

(b)What does Rebbi Yishmael in a Beraisa mean when he says 'Yisrael she'be'Chutzah la'Aretz Ovdei Avodas-Kochavim be'Taharah hein'?

(c)Will it make a difference if they ...

1. ... eat their own food?

2. ... are served by their own waiter?

(d)He learns this from the Pasuk in Ki Sisa "ve'Kara l'cha ve'Achalta mi'Zivcho". How does Rebbi Yishmael learn from there that the prohibition speaks even when they eat their own food, despite the fact that the Torah write "ve'Achalta mi'Zivcho"?

7)

(a)From the words 've'oso ha'Ish' (in the ruling in our Mishnah 'Yom Tiglachas B'no ... ve'Yom she'Yatza mi'Beis ha'Asurim Ein Asur Ela oso ha'Yom Bil'vad ve'oso ha'Ish') Rav Ashi substantiates Rebbi Yochanan's opinion that - it is only the people who actually worship the idol with whom one is forbidden to do business, but not people who are subservient to them.

(b)When Rebbi Yishmael says in a Beraisa 'Yisrael she'be'Chutzah la'Aretz Ovdei Avodas-Kochavim be'Taharah hein', he means that - although he does not realize it, a Yisrael who participates in a party arranged by a Nochri to celebrate the birth of his son, is guilty of Avodah-Zarah ...

(c)... even if he ...

1. ... eats his own food ...

2. ... and is served by his own waiter.

(d)He learns this from the Pasuk in Ki Sisa "ve'Kara l'cha ve'Achalta mi'Zivcho", despite the fact that the Torah writes "ve'Achalta mi"Zivcho" - because "ve'Kara l'cha" implies that one transgresses from the moment that one accepts the invitation, even if he did not actually eat the Nochri's food.

8)

(a)For how long after the event does Rav Papa prohibit participation in the party, assuming that the Nochri ..

1. ... did not mention the occasion in his invitation?

2. ... did mention it? After how long does he (quoting Rava) permit participating in the party, even if he specifically specifies why he organized it?

(b)Why did Rav Yitzchak b'rei de'Rav Mesharshaya then desist from eating at the party of the Nochri who praised his god because of is participation, even though it was being held after twelve months had already elapsed?

8)

(a)Assuming that the Nochri ..

1. ... did not mention the occasion in his invitation - Rav Papa prohibits participation in the party - for thirty days after the birth.

2. ... did mention it, Rav Papa quoting Rava, prohibits it - for twelve months. After that, it becomes permitted to participate, even if the Nochri specifically explains why he organized it.

(b)Rav Yitzchak b'rei de'Rav Mesharshaya nevertheless desisted from eating at the party of the Nochri who praised his god because of is participation, even though it was being held after twelve months had already elapsed - because Rav Yitzchak b'rei de'Rav Mesharshaya himself was am important dignitary, and his participation in the party gave him more pleasure than anybody else's would.

8b----------------------------------------8b

9)

(a)If, as Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel explains, 'Kartesim' commemorates the day that the Romans seized power from the Greeks, how does Rav Yosef explain the Beraisa 'Kartesim ve'Yom she'Tafsah bo Romi Malchus'?

(b)According to Rav Dimi, how many battles did Rome fight against the Greeks before finally vanquishing them?

(c)Who helped them to achieve their final victory?

(d)What agreement did the Romans enter into with Yisrael?

9)

(a)'Kartesim' commemorates the day that the Romans seized power from the Greeks, as Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel explains. Nevertheless, Rav Yosef explains, the Beraisa mentions them both ('Kartesim ve'Yom she'Tafsah bo Romi Malchus') - because they seized power on two separate occasions, once, during the reign of Cleopatra, Queen of Alexandria, and once from the Greeks.

(b)According to Rav Dimi, they fought - thirty-two battles against the Greeks before finally vanquishing them.

(c)Yisrael helped them to achieve final victory.

(d)The agreement into which the Romans entered with them was - that basically they would share power, inasmuch that when one of them provided a king, the other would provide a governor.

10)

(a)The Romans finally overcame the Greeks, not through battle, but through litigation. What is the order of significance of a pearl, a precious stone and a carbuncle? Which would serve as a base for which (see Agados Maharsha, who explains that these three represent the three nations that preceded Rome)?

(b)What does this have to do with a Seifer-Torah?

(c)How many years did it take the Romans to abrogate their treaty with Yisrael?

(d)If initially, they Darshened the Pasuk in Vayishlach 'Nis'ah Ve'neilechah ve'Eilchah le'Negdecha', which Pasuk did they Darshen afterwards?

10)

(a)The Romans finally overcame the Greeks, not through battle, but through litigation. The order of significance of a pearl, a precious stone and a carbuncle - is in the order that we have presented them, a pearl serves as a base for a precious stone, and a precious stone, for a carbuncle (or for an onyx-stone [see Agados Maharsha, who explains that these three represent the three nations that preceded Rome]).

(b)Finally, the Romans asked the Greeks, regarding a carbuncle and a Seifer-Torah (with reference to Yisrael, who were their allies), which serves as a base for which, to which they replied that the former serves as a base for the latter. In that case, the Romans concluded, the Greeks (whom they compared to the carbuncle), must be subservient to them, in their capacity as Yisrael's allies).

(c)It took the Romans - twenty-six years to abrogate their treaty with Yisrael.

(d)Initially, they Darshened the Pasuk in Vayishlach 'Nis'ah Ve'neilechah ve'Eilchah le'Negdecha' afterwards, they Darshened the Pasuk there - "Ya'avor Na Avdo lifnei Adoni" (giving Eisav the first rights to rule over the other [see Agados Maharsha]).

11)

(a)Rav Kahana cites the episode where Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi fell ill. What information did Rebbi ask from him?

(b)How many years before the destruction of the second Beis Hamikdash did the Romans come to power?

(c)Eighty years before the Churban, the Chachamim decreed Tum'ah on two things. One of them, was the lands of the Nochrim. What was the other?

11)

(a)Rav Kahana cites the episode where Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi fell ill, and Rebbi asked him - to repeat 'two or three' of the sayings that he had already told them in the name of his father Rebbi Yossi (which he proceeded to do ... ).

(b)The Romans came to power - a hundred and eighty years before the destruction of the second Beis Hamikdash.

(c)Eighty years before the Churban, the Chachamim decreed Tum'ah on two things; the lands of the Nochrim - and glass vessels (which are not subject to Tum'ah min ha'Torah).

12)

(a)What happened forty years before the Churban?

(b)Rav Yitzchak bar Avdimi's suggests that the ramifications of this move were that they could no longer judge 'Diynei K'nasos'. What is his source for this?

(c)We reject this suggestion however, because of an incident with Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava, whom Rav Yehudah Amar Rav praised, because, he said, if not for him, Diynei K'nasos would have been forgotten. Why do we find it necessary to amend this statement?

(d)How do we amend it?

12)

(a)Forty years before the Churban - the Sanhedrin went into 'exile', moving from the Lishkas ha'Gazis to 'Chanus' (a location on the Har ha'Bayis).

(b)Rav Yitzchak bar Avdimi's suggests that the ramifications of this move were that they could no longer judge 'Diynei K'nasos' which he learns from - the Pasuk in Mishpatim (written in connection with Diynei K'nasos) "Asher Yarshi'un Elohim", which teaches us that Diynei K'nasos require Dayanim Semuchim (which we currently think also incorporates sitting in the Lishkas ha'Gazis).

(c)We reject this suggestion however, because of an incident with Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava, whom Rav Yehudah Amar Rav praised, because, he said, if not for him, Diynei K'nasos would have been forgotten. We find it necessary to amend this statement - because, if that was the case, all Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava would have needed to have done, was to teach his Talmidim Diynei K'nasos.

(d)So we amend it to read that - if not for him, Diynei K'nasos would have no longer being judged.

13)

(a)What did the Romans threaten to do with whoever received Semichah as well as whoever gave it?

(b)Why did Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava give his Talmidim Semichah between two big mountains and between two Techumei Shabbos?

(c)What is the significance of 'between Shefaram and Usha'?

(d)He gave Semichah to Rebbi Meir, Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Yossi. Who were the other two Talmidim who received Semichah from him?

(e)What does Rav Ivya say about Rebbi Nechemyah?

13)

(a)The Romans threatened - to kill whoever received Semichah and whoever gave Semichah.

(b)Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava gave his Talmidim Semichah between two big mountains and between two Techumei Shabbos - because they also threatened to wipe out the city and the border that was nearest to the location where the Semichah was given. By giving it between two cities and between two mountains, he prevented them from carrying out that threat.

(c)'Between Shefaram and Usha' was - the location where he gave them Semichah.

(d)He gave Semichah to Rebbi Meir, Rebbi Yehudah, Rebbi Yossi - Rebbi Shimon and Rebbi Elazar (ben Shamu'a).

(e)According to Rav Ivya - Rebbi Nechemyah was also included in the list.

14)

(a)What did Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava say to his Talmidim ...

1. ... when they saw the Romans approaching from a distance?

2. ... when the Talmidim asked him what would happen to him?

(b)What did happen to him?

(c)What did his body ultimately resemble?

(d)How do we prove from this episode that Diynei K'nasos did not cease to be judged after the Sanhedrin left the Lishkas ha'Gazis?

14)

(a)When ...

1. ... they saw the Romans approaching from a distance, Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava instructed his Talmidim - to flee.

2. ... the Talmidim asked him what would happen to him, he replied that - he was ready to die (al Kidush Hash-m ['Hareini Mutal lifneihem ke'Even she'Ein lah Hofchin').

(b)In fact - the Romans riddled his body with three hundred arrows (as a result of which he became one of the ten martyrs) ...

(c)... until his body resembled a sieve.

(d)We prove from this episode that Diynei K'nasos did not cease after the Sanhedrin left the Lishkas ha'Gazis - since it took place long after the Churban Beis-Hamikdash (let alone the Sanhedrin's exile [yet Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava gave his Talmidim Semichah).

15)

(a)So how does Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak explain the ramifications of the Sanhedrin's exile?

(b)Why did the Sanhedrin leave the Lishkas ha'Gazis?

(c)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Parshas Shoftim "Ve'asisa al-Pi ha'Davar asher Yagidu l'cha min ha'Makom ha'Hu"?

15)

(a)So Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak explains the ramifications of the Sanhedrin's exile as the fact that - it resulted in the abolition of the death sentence.

(b)The Sanhedrin left the Lishkas ha'Gazis - precisely because there was a significant increase of murder cases, which was beyond the Sanhedrin's ability to handle.

(c)We learn from the Pasuk in Parshas Shoftim "Ve'asisa al-Pi ha'Davar asher Yagidu l'cha min ha'Makom ha'Hu" (bearing in mind that it is referring to Diynei Nefashos), that - the Sanhedrin may only judge Diynei Nefashos as long as the Sanhedrin ha'Gadol is sitting in the Lishkas ha'Gazis.

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