1)ATONEMENT FOR OTHER SINS
(a)(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps it atones for idolatry, Arayos, and murder.
(b)Question: What is the case of idolatry?
1.If he served b'Mezid, he is Chayav Misah (he should be executed! Surely the goat does not atone for him!)
2.If he served b'Shogeg, he must bring a Korban! (Surely the goat does not exempt him from this!)
(c)Answer #1: He served b'Mezid without warning (so Beis Din does not kill him);
(d)Answer #2: He served b'Shogeg and never realized his sin (so he is not yet liable to bring a Korban).
(e)Question: What is the case of Arayos?
1.If he sinned b'Mezid, he is Chayav Misah. If he sinned b'Shogeg, he must bring a Korban!
(f)Answer: We can say that he sinned b'Mezid without warning, or b'Shogeg and never realized his sin.
(g)Question: What is the case of murder?
1.If he killed b'Mezid, he is Chayav Misah. If he killed b'Shogeg, he must be exiled in a city of refuge! (Surely the goat does not exempt him from this.)
(h)Answer: We can say that he killed b'Mezid without warning;
1.Or, he killed b'Shogeg and never realized it, or in a way that is exempt from exile (e.g. he was engaged in an upward motion).
2)FOR WHICH TUM'OS DOES IT ATONE?
(a)(Beraisa - R. Yehudah) Suggestion: Perhaps it atones for these three transgressions!
(b)Rejection: It atones "mi'Tum'os", but not from all Tum'os.
1.Question: Which Tum'os are have a special law? (Presumably, the verse refers to these.)
2.Answer: They are Tum'ah of the Mikdash and Kodshim.
(c)Question: In what respect do these Tum'os have a special law?
(d)Answer: The Korban for them is an Oleh v'Yored.
(e)Question: Also idolatry has a special law! The Korban Chatas for idolatry must be a female goat. A regular Chatas can be a female lamb or goat! (We should say that the inner goat atones for idolatry!)
(f)Answer (Rav Kahana): The inner goat atones for something that has a special leniency, and not a special stringency.
(g)Question: A woman who gave birth has a special leniency. She brings an Oleh v'Yored!
(h)Answer (R. Hoshaya): "L'Chol Chatosom" does not apply, for her Korban is for Tum'ah, and not for a sin.
1.Question: According to R. Shimon, who says that the Korban is to atone in case she swore during labor that she will never have relations with her husband again, how can we answer?
2.Answer: There is no question according to R. Shimon. He says that "v'Chiper Al ha'Kodesh" teaches that it atones for Tum'os of the Mikdash and Kodshim.
(i)Question: A Metzora has a special leniency (he brings an Oleh v'Yored)!
(j)Answer (R. Hoshaya): "L'Chol Chatosom" does not apply, for his Korban is for Tum'ah, and not for a sin.
1.Question: According to Rav Shmuel bar Nachmani, who says that Tzara'as comes for seven sins, how can we answer?
2.Answer: The Tzara'as atoned for him. The Korban is only to permit him to eat Kodshim.
(k)Question: A Nazir Tamei has a special leniency. He brings pigeons or doves (in place of animals)!
(l)Answer (R. Hoshaya): "L'Chol Chatosom" does not apply, for his Korban is for Tum'ah, and not for a sin.
1.Question: According to R. Eliezer ha'Kapar, who says that a Nazir is a sinner (for denying himself wine), how can we answer?
2.Answer: He must hold like R. Shimon (who learns from "v'Chiper Al ha'Kodesh").
(m)Question: Why doesn't R. Yehudah learn like R. Shimon?
(n)Answer: He uses "v'Chiper Al ha'Kodesh" to teach that the blood is sprinkled in the Heichal the same way it is sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim (once downwards, and seven times upwards).
1.R. Shimon learns this from "v'Chen Ya'aseh l'Ohel Mo'ed."
2.R. Yehudah holds that if we only learned from that verse, one might have thought that he slaughters another bull and goat in order to sprinkle their blood in the Heichal.
3.R. Shimon holds that the verse connotes that the sprinkles from the same blood mentioned above.
(o)(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps it atones for all transgressions of Tum'os of Kodesh!
1.Rejection: It atones "umi'Pisheihem l'Chol Chatosom" (only for Chata'im that resemble Pesha'im, i.e. there is no Korban for them).
(p)Question: This excludes Chata'im in which he knew (of the Tum'ah) at the beginning and (realized his sin) at the end. One brings a Korban for the,. Surely the goat does not exempt him from the Korban!
(q)Answer: The case is, he realized his sin just before sunset of Erev Yom Kipur, and there was no time to bring the Korban;
1.One might have thought the goat protects him from punishment. The verse teaches that it does not.
(r)(Beraisa) Question: What is the source that the inner goat protects one who knew at the beginning but not at the end?
1.Question: The Tana already learned that it atones for something for which one does not bring a Korban!
2.Answer: We taught that it atones for Chata'im that resemble Pesha'im, i.e. there is no Korban for them. The Tana thought to extend this further;
i.One will never bring a Korban for Peshai'im, and also for such Chata'im in which he did not know at the beginning, but he knew at the end. Perhaps it atones for such Chata'im!
3.However, it would not atone for Chata'im which he knew at the beginning but not at the end, for he brings a Korban for them when he finds out.
4.Question: How could he think that the inner goat atones when he did not know at the beginning but he knew at the end? The outer goat and Yom Kipur atone for this!
5.Answer: One might have thought oppositely, that the inner goat atones when he knew only at the end, and the outer goat atones when he knew only at the beginning;
i."Umi'Pisheihem l'Chol Chatosom" teaches that the inner goat atones for Chata'im that can result in bringing a Korban.
3)THE GOAT OFFERED INSIDE ONLY SUSPENDS PUNISHMENT
(a)Suggestion: The inner goat should give a full atonement!
(b)Answer: Had it said 'mi'Chatosom", that would be true;
1.However, since it says "l'Chol Chatosom", this teaches that a Chatas will later be brought for them.
(c)Question: Since it does not fully atone, why does it suspend punishment?
(d)Answer #1 (R. Zeira): If the person dies without finding out, it is considered that he died without sin.
(e)Rejection (Rava): Death itself atones!
(f)Answer #2 (Rava): It protects him from punishment (until he realizes his sin).
4)THE GOAT OFFERED OUTSIDE
(a)(Mishnah): If he never knew of the Tum'ah (and entered the Mikdash or ate Kodshim), and later was told that he was Tamei, the goat (whose blood is) offered outside (the Heichal) and Yom Kipur itself atone for him...
(b)Suggestion: The Torah equates the inner and outer goats. We should say that the inner goat also atones for what the outer goat atones for!
1.This makes a difference if they were unable to bring the outer goat.
(c)Rejection: "V'Chiper... Achas" - the inner goat makes one atonement, but not two.
(d)Suggestion: We should say that the outer goat also atones for what the inner goat atones for!
1.This makes a difference for Chata'im of Tum'ah after the inner goat was offered and before the outer goat.
(e)Rejection: "Achas b'Shanah" - the atonement of the inner goat comes only once a year.