POINT BY POINT OUTLINE OF THE DAF
prepared by Rabbi Pesach Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
1) READING FROM LISTS ON SHABBOS
(a) (Gemara) Question: Why is it forbidden [to read from a list]?
(b) Answer #1 (Rav Bivi): This is a decree lest he [decide not to invite someone and] erase [a name].
(c) Answer #2 (Abaye): This is a decree lest people read secular (business) documents.
(d) Question: What is the difference between these answers?
(e) Answer #1: The list is written high on a wall - there is no concern for erasing, but the concern for reading secular documents applies.
(f) Objection #1: Also Rav Bivi should be concerned for reading secular documents [in general, including this case]!
(g) Objection #2: [Surely,] we are concerned lest one erase even if it is high [just like we are concerned lest one adjust a lamp]!
1. (Mishnah): One may not read by light of a lamp.
2. (Rabah): This is forbidden even if it is twice the height of an [average] person above the floor (he is unlikely to tilt it to make it burn better), or two plowshare lengths above the floor, even the height of 10 houses!
(h) Answer #2: Rather, the list is written low on a wall - there is concern for erasing, but not for reading [secular documents], for people do not confuse a wall with a document.
(i) Objection: Also Abaye should be concerned lest he erase [in general, including this case]!
(j) Answer #3: Rather, the list is etched into a tablet or ledger - there is no concern for erasing (it is difficult to erase, one would remember it is Shabbos before erasing), there is concern for reading.
(k) Objection: Also Rav Bivi should be concerned for reading!
1. Suggestion: Perhaps people do not confuse a tablet or ledger with a document!
2. Rejection (Beraisa): One may count which guests he will seat inside and which outside, and which courses have not yet been served, reading from [writing on] a wall, but not from a tablet or ledger.
3. Question: What is the case?
i. If it is written in ink, what is the difference between them?! (Both should be forbidden, lest he erase!)
4. Answer: They are etched.
5. Summation of objection: One may read from a wall but not from a tablet or ledger (this shows that even on a tablet we are concerned for reading secular documents)!
(l) Defense of Answer #1: Really, it is high on a wall - Tana'im argue about Rabah's concern (lest one adjust a high lamp):
1. (Beraisa): One may count his guests and courses by heart, but he may not read them;
2. R. Acha permits to read from a list on the wall.
3. Question: What is the case?
i. If it is low, we should be concerned lest he erase!
4. Answer: It is written very high.
5. The first Tana holds like Rabah, R. Acha argues.
(m) The Tana'im argue like the following:
1. (Beraisa): One may not look in a mirror on Shabbos (lest he cut uneven hairs);
2. R. Meir permits to look in a mirror fixed on the wall.
3. Question: Surely, R. Meir permits a fixed mirror because [by the time he gets a scissors] he will remember that it is Shabbos - the same applies if it is not fixed!
4. Answer: They argue about a metal mirror:
i. (Rav Nachman): One may not look in a metal mirror lest one [use its edge to] cut dangling hairs (he need not delay to get a scissors. Tosfos (Avodah Zarah 29A ha'Mistaper) - this refers to women, men may never look in a mirror on account of "Lo Yilbash Gever Simlas Ishah", adorning oneself like a woman. Rama (Y.D. 156:2) - nowadays, men look in mirrors, this is not considered Simlas Ishah.)
(n) (Beraisa): One may not read a caption under a picture or portrait on Shabbos (Rashi - lest he come to read secular documents (reading captions is more stringent than reading regular writing on a wall); R. Chananel - it is no better than secular documents);
(o) Even during the week it is forbidden to look at a portrait (Tosfos - that was made for idolatry) - "Al Tifnu El ha'Elilim"
(p) Question: How do we learn this from the verse?
(q) Answer (R. Chanin): Do not turn to what you make from the depths of your heart (Rashi - Elilim is like Chalalim; Aruch - do not clear Hash-m from your thoughts).
2) CASTING LOTS
(a) (Mishnah): One may make a lottery with his sons...
(b) Inference: It is permitted with his sons and household, but not with others.
(c) Question: What is the reason?
(d) Answer: Shmuel taught that if a group of people lend to each other and are insistent to get back no less than they gave, they transgress [on Shabbos and Yom Tov] measuring, weighing and counting, lending and repaying on Yom Tov, and according to Hillel, also usury.
(e) Question: If so, it should be forbidden even with one's household!
(f) Answer: Rav taught that one may lend to his household and take usury, to give them a taste of usury (so they will know how terrible it is. Since he feeds them, it is all his money, it is not really usury; similarly, since there is no concern of overcharging (they measure merely to avoid jealousy), they do not transgress measuring, weighing...]
(g) Question: If so, it should be permitted to intend to make some portions bigger than others!
(h) Answer: Indeed, it is - the Mishnah is abbreviated, it means as follows:
1. One may make a lottery with his sons and household at the table, even if some portions are bigger than others;
2. Question: Why is this permitted?
3. Answer: It is permitted like Rav taught.
4. It is permitted with his sons and household, but not with others.
5. Question: Why is it forbidden with others?
6. It is forbidden like Shmuel taught.
7. With others, one may not make some portions bigger than others, even during the week.
8. Question: What is the reason?
9. Answer: This is like gambling, (It is Asmachta - even though everyone agrees that the winner will profit, if the losers would know the outcome beforehand they would not agree; they lack sufficient intent to transfer ownership, hence the winner steals.)
(i) (Mishnah): We may make a lottery [regarding Kodshim, but not regarding the portions].
(j) Question: What does it mean 'But not regarding the portions'?
(k) Answer (R. Yakov brah d'Bas Yakov): One may not make a lottery on Yom Tov to divide portions from a weekday Korban.
(l) Objection: This is obvious!
(m) Answer: One might have thought, since Kohanim are quarrelsome - "V'Amcha ki'Mrivei Chohen" - it should be permitted even to divide weekday portions [to avoid strife] - the Mishnah teaches that this is not so.
3) THE EVIL OF NEBUCHADNETZAR
(a) (R. Yakov brah d'Bas Yakov): If someone is punished on account of Ploni (Iyun Yakov - and Ploni desires this), Ploni does not enter Hash-m's Mechitzah.
(b) Question: How do we know this?
1. Suggestion: We learn from "Va'Yomer Hash-m Mi Yefateh Es Ach'av...; Va'Yetzei ha'Ru'ach...Ani Afatenu...; V'Hayisi Ru'ach Sheker... Va'Yomer...Tzei";
i. Question: What was this Ru'ach?
ii. Answer (R. Yochanan): It was the Ru'ach of Navos (whom Ach'av framed and killed).
iii. Question: Why did Hash-m say "Tzei"?
iv. Answer (Rav): Hash-m told him 'Leave My Presence' (because Ach'av will be punished through him).
2. Rejection: Perhaps He told him to leave because he offered to lie - "Dover Shekarim Lo Yikon l'Neged Einai".
(c) Answer #1: We learn from "Sovata Kalon..."
1. "Sovata Kalon mi'Kavod" alludes to Nebuchadnetzar (he intended to sodomize Tzidkiyahu, Hash-m made his Orlah grow tremendously, an awesome disgrace);
2. "Shese Gam Atah veha'Arel" refers to Tzidkiyahu (he was punished because Nebuchadnetzar was being punished on account of him).
(d) Objection #1: The entire verse refers to Nebuchadnetzar!
(e) Objection #2: Tzidkiyahu was a Tzadik - he did not do anything wrong (surely, he is not accountable)!
1. (Rav Yehudah): When that Rasha intended to do so to that Tzadik...(he calls Tzidkiyahu a Tzadik).
(f) Answer #2: We learn from "Gam Anosh la'Tzadik Lo Tov" - Lo Tov is Ra;
1. It says "Ki Lo Kel Chofetz Rasha Atah Lo Yegurcha Ra" - Hash-m is a Tzadik, Ra will not dwell in His dwelling.
(g) Question: The Mishnah discusses casting 'Chalashim' on Kodshim - what is the source that this means 'lotteries'?
(h) Answer: It says "Eich Nofalta mi'Shomayim...Cholesh Al Goyim";
1. (Rabah bar Rav Huna): He (Nebuchadnetzar) used to cast lots on the great kings, to decide who to sodomize each day;
2. (R. Yochanan): [When Nebuchadnetzar died "Nachah Shoktah Kol ha'Aretz...] Kol Malchei Goyim" - the kings had respite from forced homosexual relations.
(i) (R. Yochanan): As long as Nebuchadnetzar was alive, no one laughed - "Nachah Shoktah Kol ha'Aretz Potzchu Rinah" - this implies that during his life, no one rejoiced.
(j) (R. Yitzchak): It is forbidden to stand in Nebuchadnetzar's house - "U'S'irim Yerakdu Sham" (Rashi - only Mazikim should be there - when people enter, they leave; Maharsha - it is forbidden to enter on account of danger).
(k) (Rav Yehudah): When that Rasha intended to do so to that Tzadik, his foreskin stretched 300 Amos, the size of the entire assemblage - "Sovata Kalon mi'Kavod Shese Gam Atah veha'Arel" - the Gematri'a of Arel is 300.
(l) (Rav Yehudah): When that Rasha descended to Gehinom, everyone there clamored, unsure if he came to rule over them (it is better to punished directly by Hash-m than through people) or to be punished with them - "Gam Atah Chulesa Chamonu Eleinu Nimshalta" (this is like Memshalah, kingship);
(m) A Bas Kol announced "Mi'Mi No'omta Redah v'Hashkevah Es Arelim" (it will not be more Na'im (pleasant) for you than for them).
(n) (Rav Yehudah): "Eich Shovas Nogesh Shovsah Madhevah" - this nation (Bavel) that said Medod v'Havei (measure out and give [gold] - how did it cease)!
1. Alternatively, it said Me'od Me'od Havi (bring very much) without measure.
(o) (Rav Yehudah): "U'Rvu Yatirah Husfas Li" - this teaches that [after being an animal for seven years, he returned to his kingship and] he rode on a lion and tied a snake to its (Maharsha - his) head, to fulfill "V'Gam Es Chayas ha'Sadeh Nosati Lo Le'ovdo".