POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
12TH CYCLE SHABBOS 12-14 - These Dafim have been dedicated by Ari Friedman and family of Lawrence, N.Y., l'Iluy Nishmas Ari's late father, Reb Yakov Yosef ben Rav Nosson Neta Z'L Friedman, who passed away unexpectedly this past 30 Nisan. Always brimming with joy and generosity, Jack Friedman exemplified true Ahavas Yisrael and Ahavas Chesed. May he be a Melitz Yosher for his children and grandchildren and for all of Klal Israel.
1) THINGS THAT ARE POSEL THE TERUMAH
(a) Question: The Tana holds that one who eats a Rishon or Sheni is Posel Terumah, but he is not Metamei it (make it able to Posel other Terumah, e.g. a Sheni). Who is the Tana?
(b) Answer (Rabah bar bar Chanah): It is R. Yehoshua:
1. (Mishnah - R. Eliezer): One who eats a Rishon becomes a Rishon. One who eats a Sheni becomes a Sheni. One who eats a Shelishi becomes a Shelishi;
2. R. Yehoshua says, one who eats a Rishon or Sheni becomes a Sheni. One who eats a Shelishi becomes a Sheni regarding Kodesh, but not regarding Terumah;
i. This refers to Chulin Al Taharas (guarded as if they were) Terumah. (However, regular Chulin cannot become a Shelishi.)
(c) Question: Why did they decree that one who eats a Rishon or Sheni becomes a Sheni?
(d) Answer: This is a decree lest he put Terumah liquids in his mouth together with Tamei food, which would be Posel the Terumah.
(e) Question: Why did they decree that one who drinks a Tamei liquid becomes a Sheni?
(f) Answer: This is a decree lest he put Terumah food in his mouth together with Tamei liquids.
(g) Question: This is just like the previous decree! (Why are they counted separately?)
(h) Answer: One might have thought that we do not make the latter decree, because [it is common to drink while eating, but] it is not common to eat while drinking. The Mishnah teaches that this is not so.
(i) (Mishnah): One [a Tevul Yom] who entered his head or his majority in Mayim She'uvim [is Posel Terumah].
(j) Question: Why was this decreed?
(k) Answer: People used to immerse in [Mikva'os of] stinking water in caves. Afterwards, they would pour [three Lugim of] Mayim She'uvim on their heads. It became Keva (primary), so they decreed about it.
(l) Question: What is the meaning of 'it became Keva'?
(m) Answer #1 (Abaye): People used to say that the Mikvah is not Metaher without the Mayim She'uvim.
(n) Objection (Rava): That would not be a problem, for they would continue to immerse in the Mikvah!
(o) Answer #2 (Rava): People used to say that the Mikvah is not Metaher, only the Mayim She'uvim are.
(p) (Mishnah): A Tahor who had three Lugim of Mayim She'uvim poured on his head.
(q) Question: Why was this decreed? (The above reason applies only to a Tevul Yom!)
(r) Answer: If not for this decree on all people, the decree on a Tevul Yom would not be followed.
2) TUM'AH OF HANDS
(a) (Mishnah): A Sefer.
(b) Question: Why was this decreed?
(c) Answer (Rav Mesharshiya): People used to store Terumah in the same place that Sifrei Torah were kept, for both of them are Kodesh;
1. The Terumah [attracted mice, which] caused Seforim to be ruined. They decreed Tum'ah on Seforim [to discourage the practice].
(d) (Mishnah): [Stam] hands.
(e) Question: Why was this decreed?
(f) Answer: Hands touch many things. (Rashi - perhaps they will touch filth and debase Terumah. Alternatively, perhaps they touched Tum'ah.)
(g) (Beraisa): Even hands that touched a Sefer are Posel Terumah, due to R. Parnach's teaching:
1. (R. Parnach): One who holds [the parchment of] a Sefer Torah in his bare hand [not through a cloth] will be buried bare.
2. Objection: This is unreasonable!
3. Correction: Rather, he will be buried bare of Mitzvos.
4. Objection: This is unreasonable!
5. Correction: Rather, he will be buried bare of that Mitzvah (of learning in it).
(h) Question: Which of these two decrees was first?
1. We cannot say that the decree on Stam hands was first. If so, there would be no need to decree on hands that touched a Sefer! (Tosfos - it is not common to touch after washing and guarding his hands, so they would not decree just for this case.)
(i) Answer: They first decreed on hands that touched a Sefer.
3) OTHER THINGS THAT ARE POSEL THE TERUMAH
(a) (Mishnah): A Tevul Yom.
(b) Objection: This is not a decree. He is Posel Terumah mid'Oraisa - "u'Va ha'Shemesh v'Taher"!
(c) Correction: We must delete Tevul Yom from the Mishnah.
(d) (Mishnah): Food that became Tamei through liquids.
(e) Question: What kind of liquids were Metamei the food?
1. Suggestion: The liquids touched a Sheretz.
2. Rejection: If so, the food is Posel Terumah mid'Oraisa!
(f) Answer: The liquids touched [Stam] hands. This is a decree due to liquids that touched a Sheretz.
(g) (Mishnah): Vessels that became Tamei through liquids.
(h) Question: What kind of liquids were Metamei the vessels?
1. Suggestion: They are fluids of a Zav (spit, urine...)
(i) Rejection: If so, the vessels are Posel Terumah mid'Oraisa!
1. "V'Chi Yarok ha'Zav ba'Tahor" - if a Zav spits on something that the Tahor holds, he is Metamei it.
(j) Answer: The liquids touched a Sheretz. This is a decree due to fluids of a Zav.
(k) Question: We said that these decrees were made when Beis Shamai outnumbered Beis Hillel. However, Hillel and Shamai themselves decreed about hands, and not their Talmidim!
1. (Beraisa): Yosi ben Yo'ezer and Yosi ben Yochanan decreed Tum'ah on Chutz la'Aretz and on glass vessels;
2. Shimon Ben Shetach enacted [a lien on all a man's property to pay a] Kesuvah and decreed Tum'ah on metal vessels (this will be explained);
3. Hillel and Shamai decreed Tum'ah on [Stam] hands.
4. Suggestion: Perhaps this means, Hillel and his followers and Shamai and his followers decreed.
5. Rejection: Rav Yehudah taught that there was an argument about all 18 things decreed. Hillel and Shamai argued about only three things [and Tum'ah of hands was not among them]!
i. (Rav Huna): Hillel and Shamai argued about three things and nothing else.
6. Suggestion: Perhaps Hillel and Shamai decreed to be Toleh (neither eat nor burn) Terumah touched by Stam hands, and their Talmidim decreed to burn it!
7. Rejection: Ilfa taught that the initial decree regarding [Terumah that touched Stam] hands was to burn it.
(l) Answer: Hillel and Shamai decreed about Terumah touched by Stam hands, but the decree was not accepted. Their Talmidim decreed, and the decree was accepted.
(m) Question: Shlomo decreed this [long before Hillel and Shamai]!
1. (Rav Yehudah): When Shlomo decreed Eiruvin and Netilas Yadayim, a Bas Kol (voice from Shamayim) said "Beni Im Chacham Libecha Yismach Libi Gam Ani" and "Chacham Beni v'Samach Libi va'Ashivah Chorfi Davar."
(n) Answer: Shlomo decreed regarding Kodshim. They decreed regarding Terumah.