1)

(a)Our Mishnah describes Misas Sereifah. Where do they place ...

1. ... the condemned man whilst the sentence is being carried out? Why do they do that?

2. ... the hard cloth that they wind round the condemned man's neck?

(b)Why do they need two cloths? Why will not suffice?

(c)After forcing his mouth open, how do they actually 'burn' him?

(d)What exactly caused the condemned man's death?

1)

(a)Our Mishnah describes Misas Sereifah. They place ...

1. ... the condemned man in dung up to his knees whilst the actual sentence is being carried out (to prevent him from twisting and turning and getting hurt when the boiling lead falls on his skin). The dung (rather than sand), is in order to shame him (see Tiferes Yisrael).

2. ... the hard cloth that they wound round the condemned man's neck - inside a soft one.

(b)They need two cloths - because a soft cloth alone will not force his mouth open as quickly a hard one; whereas a hard one wound the condemned man's neck will cause him unnecessary pain.

(c)After forcing his mouth open - they 'burn' him by pouring boiling lead down his throat.

(d)It was the contact with his stomach - causing it to contract, that was responsible for the condemned man's death.

2)

(a)According to Rebbi Yehudah, they forc his mouth open using a pair of tongs. Why does he object to the Tana Kama's method?

(b)According to Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok, burning means literally what it says. How does he try to prove this from an actual case that took place with a Bas Kohen who had committed adultery? How did Beis-Din put her to death?

(c)On what grounds do the Chachamim refute his proof?

2)

(a)According to Rebbi Yehudah, they force his mouth open using a pair of tongs. He objects to the Tana Kama's method - because, he claims, if the condemned man dies as the cloth tightens around his neck, they will not have fulfilled the Mitzvah of Sereifah.

(b)According to Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok, burning means literally what it says. And he tries to prove this from an actual case that took place with a Bas Kohen who had committed adultery - and whom Beis-Din surrounded with branches which they set on fire.

(c)The Chachamim counter his proof - by pointing out that that Beis-Din consisted of Tzedokim, who did not accept the oral Torah, and who therefore explained ''Sereifah" literally, like they did the rest of the written Torah.

3)

(a)We learn the method of burning from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Sereifah" "Sereifah" from Adas Korach. How do we learn it from there?

(b)Rebbi Elazar learns the same 'Gezeirah-Shavah', but from a different source. Which source?

(c)The first opinion uses Korach as its source, based on the Pasuk "ve'es Machtos ha'Chata'im ha'Eileh *be'Nafshosam*" (implying their souls, but not their bodies). How does Rebbi Elazar intercept the word "be'Nafshosam"?

(d)And he bases this on Resh Lakish's interpretation of the Pasuk in Tehilim "be'Chanfei La'agei Ma'og Charak Alav Shineimo". What caused the Angel of Gehinom to sharpen his teeth, following the episode with Korach, according to Resh Lakish?

3)

(a)We learn the method of burning from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Sereifah" "Sereifah" from Adas Korach - which teaches us that, like Adas Korach, the Mitzvah of Sereifah entails burning the insides, and leaving the body intact.

(b)Rebbi Elazar learns the same 'Gezeirah-Shavah', but from - the death of Nadav and Avihu.

(c)The first opinion uses Korach as its source, based on the Pasuk "ve'es Machtos ha'Chata'im ha'Eileh *be'Nafshosam*" (implying their souls, but not their bodies), which Rebbi Elazar interprets to mean - 'for the pleasure that they received', as we shall now explain.

(d)And he bases this on Resh Lakish's interpretation of the Pasuk "be'Chanfei La'agei Ma'og Charak Alav Shineimo", according to which - it was the physical pleasure derived from the food and drink supplied by Korach (to flatter Yisrael into joining his rebellion) that ultimately caused the Angel of Gehinom to sharpen his teeth, following the episode with Korach.

4)

(a)On the other hand, Rebbi Elazar's source is the Pasuk in Shemini "va'Yamusu Lifnei Hash-m", which he interprets to mean that Nadav and Avihu died the same sort of death as Misas Beis-Din. How does the first opinion explain this Pasuk? How did they in fact, die?

(b)All this is based on a statement of Aba Yossi ben Dustai. How does Aba Yossi describe Nadav and Avihu's death?

(c)How does the first opinion explain the Pasuk "va'Tochal Osam" (implying that part of them remained intact, like Rebbi Elazar)?

(d)We query the above 'Gezeirah-Shavah' however, as there is a third case where the word "Sereifah" is used, but where the burning is meant literally, and from which we might learn the Din of Sereifah. What is it?

4)

(a)On the other hand, Rebbi Elazar's source is the Pasuk in Shemini "va'Yamusu Lifnei Hash-m", which he interprets to mean that Nadav and Avihu died the same sort of death as Misas Beis-Din. According to the first opinion - the Pasuk is merely describing how they began to die. The fire however, spread to the rest of their bodies until they were completely burnt.

(b)All this is based on a statement of Aba Yossi ben Dustai, who describes - how two flashes of fire shot out of the Kodesh Kodshim before dividing into four, two of which entered each of the two nostrils of Nadav and Avihu (see Agados Maharsha).

(c)According to the first opinion, the Pasuk "va'Tochal Osam", implying that part of them remained intact, comes to preclude (not their bodies, like Rebbi Elazar, but) - their clothes, which remained intact.

(d)We query the above 'Gezeirah-Shavah' however, as there is a third case - (that of Parim ha'Nisrafin (bulls of Sin-offerings, whose blood is sprinkled inside the Kodesh, and whose flesh is therefore burned outside the camp) where the word "Sereifah" is used, but where the burning is meant literally (and from which we might learn the Din of Sereifah).

5)

(a)We nevertheless prefer to learn from the Adas Korach or from the B'nei Aharon, because they have in common with the punishment of Sereifah 'Adam, Chotei, Neshamah, Pigul', which Parim ha'Nisrafin do not. What does 'Neshamah' mean?

(b)We try to counter this by citing 'Machshir, le'Doros', which Parim ha'Nisrafin share in common with the punishment of Sereifah, but which the above two do not. 'Machshir' means that they, like the Sereifah of our Sugya, are a Mitzvah. What does 'le'Doros' mean?

(c)In any event, seeing as Parim ha'Nisrafin has certain plus-factors that the other two do not, why do we not learn from it that Sereifah must be taken literally?

5)

(a)We nevertheless prefer to learn from the Adas Korach or from the B'nei Aharon, because they have in common with the punishment of Sereifah, 'Adam, Chotei, Neshamah and Pigul, 'which Parim ha'Nisrafin do not. 'Neshamah' means - that each of the three cases entailed taking the Neshamah of someone who was alive, unlike the Parim Ha'Nisrafin, which were already dead.

(b)We try to counter that however, by citing 'Machshir, le'Doros', which Parim ha'Nisrafin share in common with the punishment of Sereifah, but which the other two do not. 'Machshir' means that they, like the Sereifah of our Sugya, are a Mitzvah, 'le'Doros' - that they are ongoing occurrences (as opposed to the Adas Korach and Nadav and Avihu, which only happened once).

(c)Despite the fact that Parim ha'Nisrafin has certain plus-factors that the other two do not, we do not learn from it that Sereifah must be taken literally - because *they* have four plus-factors against its two.

6)

(a)We explain that the opinion which learns Sereifah from Adas Korach, declines to learn it from Nadav and Avihu, because their bodies were completely burned. Which Pasuk does Rav Nachman Amar Rabah bar Avuhah cite to explains why we do not learn from them that this is the way Sereifah should be performed?

(b)How can a side Pasuk, which is written in a different context, negate a 'Gezeirah-Shavah'

(c)Now that we have the S'vara (Pasuk) of Rav Nachman, why do we still need the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' of "Sereifah" "Sereifah"? Why can we not learn from *it* that burning entails the inside, as we explained?

(d)How would we fulfill the requirement of "ve'Ahavta le'Re'acha Kamocha" even if Sereifah was taken literally?

6)

(a)We explain that the opinion which learns Sereifah from Adas Korach, declines to learn it from Nadav and Avihu, because their bodies were completely burned. To explains why we do not learn from them that this is the way Sereifah should be performed - Rav Nachman Amar Rabah bar Avuhah cites the Pasuk in Kedoshim "ve'Ahavta Le'Re'acha Kamocha" (which teaches us among other things, to pick the nicest possible death when executing a condemned man).

(b)Although this is a side Pasuk, which is written in a different context, we nevertheless Darshen it in this way - because it does not really negate the 'Gezeirah-Shavah', but only indicates from which Pasuk to learn it.

(c)Even though we have the S'vara (Pasuk) of Rav Nachman, we still need the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' of "Sereifah" "Sereifah" - because we would otherwise have thought that burning the insides alone does not constitute 'Sereifah'.

(d)We would fulfill the requirement of "ve'Ahavta le'Re'acha Kamocha" even if Sereifah was taken literally - by adding more branches, to ensure that the condemned man dies quickly.

7)

(a)What did Nadav once say to Avihu as they were walking behind Moshe and Aharon?

(b)What did Hash-m answer them?

(c)What adage did Rav Papa quote in this connection?

7)

(a)Nadav once say to Avihu, as they once walked behind Moshe and Aharon - 'When will these two old men die, so that we will be able to take over the reigns of leadership'?

(b)Hash-m answered them - that it remained to be seen as to who would bury whom.

(c)Rav Papa quoted the adage - 'There are many old camels laden with the skins of younger camels who died before them'.

52b----------------------------------------52b

8)

(a)If an Am ha'Aretz initially perceives a Talmid-Chacham as a golden water-jug, how does he perceive him once the Talmid-Chacham ...

1. ... has talked to him?

2. ... has benefited from him?

(b)What are the hidden ramifications of this final distinction?

(c)What does this have to do with the previous Sugya?

8)

(a)If an Am ha'Aretz initially perceives a Talmid-Chacham as a golden water-jug, once the Talmid-Chacham ...

1. ... has talked to him - he perceives him as a silver one.

2. ... has benefited from him - as an earthenware one ...

(b)... which has no value once it breaks. Likewise, a Talmid-Chacham who benefited from an Am ha'Aretz, will forget all his learning, and become valueless.

(c)This is similar to the previous Sugya - which talked about the downfall of the many Talmidei-Chachamim who benefited from Korach.

9)

(a)What did Rav Chama bar Tuvya do with Imr'sa bas Tali ha'Kohen when she committed adultery?

(b)Besides having erred in Rav Masna, who establishes our Mishnah by a strip of lead, he was guilty of another error based on a Beraisa. What does the Beraisa learn from the Pasuk in Shoftim "u'Va'sa el ha'Kohanim ve'el ha'Shofet Asher Yih'yeh ba'Yamim ha'Heim"?

(c)To dispense with the first error, why can we not answer that Rav Chama did not hold like Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok?

9)

(a)When Imr'sa bas Tali ha'Kohen committed adultery - Rav Chama bar Tuvya surrounded her with branches and set fire to them.

(b)Besides having erred in Rav Masna, who establishes our Mishnah by a strip of lead, he was guilty of another error based on a Beraisa, which learns from the Pasuk "u'Va'sa el ha'Kohanim ve'el ha'Shofet Asher Yih'yeh ba'Yamim ha'Heim" - that Mishpat (incorporating the death-penalty) can only operate as long as the Kohanim are serving in the Beis-Hamikdash, but not after the Churban Beis Hamikdash (which is when he lived).

(c)To dispense with the first error, we cannot answer that Rav Chama held like Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok - since he conceded to the Chachamim that he had erred.

10)

(a)What did Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok in the Beraisa remember having seen when he was a child riding on his father's shoulders?

(b)What did the Chachamim reply to that?

(c)How do we reconcile this with our Mishnah, where they ascribed his testimony to a Beis-Din of Tzedokim?

(d)How do we know that the episode in our Mishnah occurred after the one in the Beraisa?

10)

(a)Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok in the Beraisa remembered as a child riding on his father's shoulders, witnessing how the Beis-Din had once burned a bas Kohen by surrounding her with branches and setting fire to them.

(b)To which the Chachamim replied - that since he had been a child at the time, his testimony was unacceptable.

(c)We reconcile this with our Mishnah, where they ascribed his testimony to a Beis-Din of Tzedokim - by establishing the Mishnah and the Beraisa as two different episodes.

(d)The episode in our Mishnah must have occurred after the one in the Beraisa - because otherwise, having refused to accept his testimony when he was a Gadol, why did Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok persist and ask them from when he was a Katan (which they were bound to reject).

11)

(a)According to the Tana Kama of our Mishnah, how is Misas Sayaf carried out?

(b)Rebbi Yehudah considers this a disgusting death. What does he advocate?

(c)How did Rebbi Yehudah counter the Chachamim's argument that there is nothing more disgusting than Rebbi Yehudah's method of Sayaf?

(d)And how do the Chachamim counter that?

(e)How do they prove their point from a Beraisa? Which Minhag does the Beraisa cite that would be forbidden because of "u've'Chukoseihem Lo Seleichu" were it not for a Pasuk that supports it?

11)

(a)According to the Tana Kama of our Mishnah, Misas Sayaf is carried out - by severing the condemned man's head as he stood, as was the custom of the Malchus.

(b)Rebbi Yehudah considers this a disgusting death. He therefore advocates - placing his head on the chopping-block and severing it with a hatchet.

(c)When the Chachamim argued that there is nothing more disgusting than his method of Sayaf, Rebbi Yehudah conceded to them in principle, but cited the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "u've'Chokoseihem Lo Seleichu" (not to follow the customs of Nochrim, which he maintains, overrides that of ''ve'Ahavta le'Re'acha Kamocha".

(d)The Chachamim disagree with him - inasmuch as the Torah specifies sword, in which case it is not from the Nochrim that we learn it, but from the Torah.

(e)And they prove their point from a Beraisa - which prescribes the custom of burning a king's property after his death, and which specifically adds that it is subject to "u've'Chukoseihem Lo Seleichu", because it is based on the Pasuk in Yirmiyah (in connection with Tzidkiyahu ha'Melech).

12)

(a)The Mishnah in 'ha'Nisrafin' lists a murderer and the inhabitants of Ir ha'Nidachas as those who receive Sayaf. From which Pasuk in Re'ei do we learn that the Anshei Ir ha'Nidachas receive Sayaf?

(b)The Torah writes in Mishpatim (in connection with someone who killed an Eved) "Nakom Yinakem". From which Pasuk in Bechukosai do we learn that this refers to death by the sword?

(c)We reject the suggestion that Sayaf is performed by piercing the condemned man in the stomach or in his throat, on the basis of the Pasuk "l'Fi Charev". What does this prove?

(d)We also know that Sayaf does not constitute making him a Gist'ra. What is a Gist'ra?

(e)From which Pasuk in Kedoshim do we learn it?

12)

(a)The Mishnah in 'ha'Nisrafin' lists a murderer and the inhabitants of Ir ha'Nidachas as those who receive Sayaf. We learn that the Anshei Ir ha'Nidachas receive Sayaf - from the Pasuk in Re'ei "l'Fi Charev".

(b)The Torah writes (in connection with someone who killed an Eved) "Nakom Yinakem". We learn that this refers to death by the sword - from the Pasuk in Bechukosai "ve'Heveisi Aleichem Cherev N'kam B'ris", an indication that wherever the word "Nokem" is used, it refers to death by the sword.

(c)We reject the suggestion that Sayaf is performed by piercing the condemned man in the stomach or in his throat, on the basis of the Pasuk "l'Fi Charev", which, based on the Pasuk in Tehilim "ve'Cherev Pifiyos (a two-bladed sword) be'Yadam"- means death by the blade of the sword, and not by its point.

(d)We know that Sayaf does not constitute making him a Gist'ra - (cutting him two down the middle).

(e)This we learn from the Pasuk in Kedoshim - "ve'Ahavta le'Re'acha Kamocha".

13)

(a)From where do we initially learn that someone who kills a fellow Yisrael receives Sayaf (seeing as the above-mentioned Pasuk pertains to an Eved)?

(b)What does the Beraisa Darshen from the Pasuk in Parshas Shoftim (by Eglah Arufah) "ve'Atah Te'va'er ha'Dam ha'Naki mi'Kirbecha"?

(c)In view of the above Kal-va'Chomer, why is this D'rashah necessary?

(d)Now that we need the D'rashah, how do we know that Sayaf is not performed with a hatchet from the back of the neck (like an Eglah Arufah)?

13)

(a)We initially learn that someone who kills a fellow Yisrael receives Sayaf - from a 'Kal va'Chomer' from an Eved.

(b)The Beraisa Darshens from the Pasuk "ve'Atah Te'va'er ha'Dam ha'Naki mi'Kirbecha" - 'Hukshu Kol Shofchei Damim le'Eglah Arufah', which is killed by cutting its neck with the sword.

(c)In spite of the above Kal-va'Chomer, this D'rashah is necessary - according to Rebbi Shimon, who considers Chenek more stringent than Sayaf (in which case, we need the D'rashah to preclude killing a fellow Yisrael with Chenek (seeing as S'tam Misah generally means Chenek).

(d)In spite of the D'rashah from Eglah Arufah, we know that Sayaf is not performed with a hatchet from the back of the neck - from the Pasuk "ve'Ahavta le'Re'acha Kamocha".

14)

(a)How is Misas Chenek performed?

(b)In the Pasuk in Kedoshim "ve'Ish Asher Yin'af es Eishes Ish, Asher Yin'af es Eishes Re'eihu, Mos Yumas", what do we learn from the word ...

1. ... "ve'Ish"?

2. ... "Ish"?

3. ... "Re'eihu"?

4. ... "Mos Yumas"?

(c)Rebbi Yashiyah ascribes this latter ruling to the fact that for lack of a clear directive, one may only give him the most lenient death. What does Rebbi Yonasan say?

(d)Rebbi explains Rebbi Yonasan's opinion. From where does he extrapolate that S'tam Misah bi'Yedei Adam means Chenek?

(e)How does Rebbi know that Misah she'Ein bah Roshem pertains to Chenek and not Sereifah, which also leaves no external wound?

14)

(a)Misas Chenek is performed - by first placing the convicted man in dung up to his knees, and then placing a hard cloth inside a soft one, which is then wound around his neck (exactly as we explained by Sereifah, only there two people would pull the two ends of the cloth until he opened his mouth, whereas here, they would pull until he died.

(b)In the Pasuk in Kedoshim "ve'Ish Asher Yin'af es Eishes Ish, Asher Yin'af es Eishes Re'eihu, Mos Yumas", we learn from the word ...

1. ... "ve'Ish" - that a Katan is not subject to the death-penalty.

2. ... "Ish" - that the Kidushin of a Katan is not valid.

3. ... "Re'eihu" - to preclude the death sentence for committing adultery with the wife of a Nochri (which is synonymous with the principle 'Ein Ishus le'Nochri').

4. ... "Mos Yumas" - that the murderer receives death by the sword.

(c)Rebbi Yashiyah ascribes this latter ruling to the fact that, for lack of a clear directive, one may only give him the most lenient death. According to Rebbi Yonasan - this ruling has nothing to do with being more lenient, but is a 'Gezeiras ha'Kasuv' (as we shall now see).

(d)Rebbi explains Rebbi Yonasan's opinion. He extrapolates that S'tam Misah bi'Yedei Adam means Chenek - because we compare it to Misah bi'Yedei Shamayim, which leaves no wound.

(e)Rebbi knows that Misah she'Ein Bah Roshem pertains to Chenek and not Sereifah, which also leaves no wound - since the Torah prescribes Sereifah for a bas Kohen, indicating that the punishment for a bas Yisrael is not Sereifah.

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