1)

(a)What does the Beraisa say about a veil that is Tamei Medras and which the owner then designates as a mantle for a Seifer-Torah?

(b)Does this mean that it is Tahor?

(c)How will Rava, who holds 'Hazmanah La'av Milsa hi', explain this Beraisa?

(d)The fact that despite having wrapped it around the Seifer, he also needs to designate it for that purpose, is based on a statement by Rav Chisda. What does Rav Chisda say about a head-cloth that one either used or designated for use as a Tefilin-bag?

(e)In what way does Abaye disagree with Rav Chisda?

1)

(a)The Beraisa rules that a veil that is Tamei Medras and which the owner then designates as a mantle for a Seifer-Torah - loses the status of Medras without even requiring Tevilah.

(b)This does not mean that it is Tahor - because in fact, it remains Tamei Maga Medras, which has the Din of a regular Tamei vessel.

(c)Rava, who holds 'Hazmanah La'av Milsa hi', will explain this Beraisa - by adding that he also wrapped the veil around the Seifer-Torah.

(d)The fact that despite having wrapped it around the Seifer, he also needs to designate it for that purpose is based on a statement by Rav Chisda, who says that - a head-cloth that one either used or designated for use as a Tefilin-bag remains Chulin, and may still be used to wrap money (until one does both).

(e)Abaye disagrees with Rav Chisda - inasmuch as he forbids the latter case, where one designated the cloth as a Tefilin-bag (without actually using it), though he does agree with the former one (that casual use alone does not render it forbidden).

2)

(a)How will Rava establish the Beraisa 'Nefesh (an Ohel) she'Ban'o le'Shem Chai ... Hosif bo Dimus Echad (one row of bricks); le'Meis, Asur be'Hana'ah'? If it speaks when he actually buried someone there, then why does the Tana require the extra row of bricks?

(b)What does Rav Chisda say about where the owner remembers which row of bricks he added?

(c)How do we establish the Beraisa that we quoted earlier, forbidding a son to be buried in the grave that he originally dug, to conform to Rava? What is the Tana's reason for forbidding it?

(d)How do we prove this from Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel in the Seifa, who extends the prohibition to stones that he quarried from the mine for his father? What do we mean when we say 'I Mishum Hazmanah, Tavi la'Arig Mi Ika le'Ma'an'?

2)

(a)Rava will establish the Beraisa 'Nefesh (an Ohel) she'Ban'o le'Shem Chai ... Hosif bo Dimus Echad (one row of bricks); le'Meis, Asur be'Hana'ah', when a. he actually buried a corpse there, which is why the Nefesh becomes forbidden, and b. that the corpse was subsequently removed, which will explain why, if not for the extra row of bricks, it would be permitted.

(b)Rav Chisda rules - that where the owner remembers which row of bricks he added, all he needs to do is to remove it, for the Ohel to become permitted once more.

(c)To conform to Rava, we establish the Beraisa that we quoted earlier, forbidding a son to be buried in the grave that he originally dug - literally, when it is the son who dug the grave for his father, and the reason for the prohibition is (not because of Hazmanah, but) because it is not respectful for a son to be buried in the grave that he dug for his father.

(d)And we prove this from Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel in the Seifa, who extends the prohibition to stones that he quarried from the mine for his father. There for sure, Hazmanah is certainly not applicable, any more than 'Tavi la'Arig' (a piece of fabric that one spun with the intention of weaving it into shrouds), even according to Abaye.

3)

(a)We already cited the Beraisa which forbids a new grave, provided it contains a Nefel (a miscarriage). Why does this Beraisa pose a Kashya on Abaye?

(b)Abaye answers by pointing out that the Tana specifically mentions a Nefel in the Seifa, to preclude the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. What does Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel say about Hazmanah with regard to a Nefel?

(c)What is Abaye's answer? How does he now explain the Reisha of the Beraisa?

3)

(a)We already cited the Beraisa which forbids a new grave provided it contains a Nefel (a miscarriage). Assuming that there is no particular Chidush with regard to a Nefel in the Seifa, this Beraisa poses a Kashya on Abaye - inasmuch as it implies that the Reisha is permitted, even if there was Hazmanah.

(b)Abaye answers by pointing out that the Tana specifically mentions a Nefel in the Seifa, to preclude the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, who says that - Hazmanah for a Nefel is not considered Hazmanah (and it is only as long as the grave actually contains one, that it is forbidden); but before it is buried there (even if there was Hazmanah) and after it has been removed, it is permitted.

(c)Consequently - Abaye establishes the Reisha of the Beraisa S'tam, when there was no Hazmanah for a Nefel.

4)

(a)'Mosar ha'Meisim, le'Meisim' (Tzedakah-money that was collected specifically for the burial of Meisei Mitzvah or for poor people remains after they have been buried, must be used for other Meisim). What does the Beraisa go on to say about 'Mosar ha'Meis' (money that remains from the burial of a specific Meis)?

(b)How do we initially establish the Seifa to conform to Abaye? Why is the designated money not forbidden to the heirs?

(c)The continuation of the Beraisa seems to conform to Abaye. Rebbi Meir rules about the above money 'Lo Yiga bahen ad she'Yavo Eliyahu'. What does Rebbi Nasan say?

4)

(a)'Mosar ha'Meisim, le'Meisim' (Tzedakah-money that was collected specifically for the burial of Meisei Mitzvah or for poor people remains after they have buried, it must be used for other Meisim). The Beraisa continues - 'Mosar ha'Meis (money that remains from the burial of a specific Meis) le'Yorshav'.

(b)To conform to Abaye, we initially establish the Seifa - where the money was claimed still during the lifetime of the person who was just buried.

(c)The continuation of the Beraisa seems to conform to Abaye. Rebbi Meir rules about the above money 'Lo Yiga bahen ad she'Yavo Eliyahu', whereas Rebbi Nasan holds - 'Ya'asenu Dimus al Kivro O Ziluf (to sprinkle wine) Lifnei Mitaso' (apparently because he holds 'Hazmanah Milsa hi').

5)

(a)In fact, we conclude, both Abaye and Rava explain the Beraisa according to their respective opinions. According to Abaye, all the Tana'im hold in principle 'Hazmanah Milsa hi', and that explains the opinion of Rebbi Nasan. Then why does the Tana Kama permit the heirs to use the remaining money?

(b)And what does Rebbi Meir then hold?

(c)Whereas according to Rava, all the Tana'im hold in principle 'Hazmanah La'v Milsa Hi', which explains the Tana Kama's opinion. Why does Rebbi Nasan nevertheless hold that the leftovers go to the Meis on whose behalf the money was collected?

(d)And what does Rebbi Meir then hold?

5)

(a)In fact, we conclude, both Abaye and Rava explain the Beraisa according to their respective opinions. According to Abaye, all the Tana'im hold in principle 'Hazmanah Milsa hi', and that explains the opinion of Rebbi Nasan. Nevertheless, the Tana Kama permits the heirs to use the remaining money - because he concedes that excess money that was not initially fit to use for what it was claimed for, is not forbidden, whereas Rebbi Nasan does not differentiate.

(b)And Rebbi Meir - is not sure whether the Halachah is like the Tana Kama or Rebbi Nasan.

(c)Whereas according to Rava, all the Tana'im hold in principle 'Hazmanah La'av Milsa hi', which explains the Tana Kama's opinion. Nevertheless, Rebbi Nasan holds that the leftovers go to the Meis on whose behalf the money was collected - because still during his lifetime, he was not Mochel the disgrace that he felt at having collected for his shrouds, even to allow his heirs to receive whatever is left, whereas the Tana Kama holds that he is.

(d)And Rebbi Meir - is not sure whether to hold like Rebbi Nasan or the Tana Kama.

48b----------------------------------------48b

6)

(a)What does the Beraisa say about a case where the deceased's parents are throwing clothes on to the bed on which their dead son is lying?

(b)According to Abaye, why do the clothes not become forbidden because of Hazmanah?

(c)How will we establish the Beraisa in view of the Seifa, which renders clothes that touch the coffin Asur be'Hana'ah?

6)

(a)The Beraisa rules that if the deceased's parents are throwing clothes on to the bed on which their dead son is lying - it is a Mitzvah for anyone who can, to save them.

(b)According to Abaye, the clothes do not become forbidden because of Hazmanah - since it is clear that the parents are only doing this because they are totally distraught, and not because they really want the clothes to become forbidden.

(c)In view of the Seifa, which renders clothes that touch the coffin Asur be'Hana'ah, we establish the Beraisa - by the coffin in which the Meis is being buried, and where the Rabbanan decreed on account of the shrouds, which people might come to think are also permitted.

7)

(a)We query Rava from a Beraisa which permits a bag that was once used for Tefilin, to be used for money. What does the Reisha say about a bag that was made to hold Tefilin ('As'o Lehani'ach bo Tefilin')?

(b)How will Rava amend this?

(c)Another Beraisa permits using a bag that was specifically commissioned to be made as a cover for a Seifer-Torah or to hold Tefilin, until it is actually used. How will Abaye reconcile his opinion with this Beraisa?

7)

(a)We query Rava from a Beraisa which permits a bag that was once used for Tefilin, to be used for money. The Reisha rules - 'As'o *Lehani'ach* bo Tefilin, Asur Lehani'ach bo Ma'os'.

(b)Rava amends this Beraisa to read - 'As'o *ve'Hini'ach* bo Tefilin, ... '.

(c)Abaye reconciles his opinion with another Beraisa which permits using a bag that was specifically commissioned to be made as a cover for a Seifer-Torah or to hold Tefilin, until it is actually used - by establishing a Machlokes Tana'im in this regard, as we shall now see.

8)

(a)Based on which Pasuk in Bo does the Tana Kama of the Beraisa declare Pasul, Tefilin that one overlaid with gold or that one covered with the skin of a non-Kasher animal?

(b)On what grounds does ...

1. ... he permit the skin of a Kasher animal even if it was not tanned for the sake of the Mitzvah?

2. ... Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel disagree with this latter ruling?

(c)Whose opinion does Abaye follow?

(d)When Ravina asked Rava how it was feasible for someone to die without shrouds having been made for him in advance, in order to bury him as quickly as possible, the latter replied 'K'gon Shichvi de'Harpanya'. What did he mean by that?

(e)Mereimar rules like Abaye (regarding Hazmanah), the Rabbanan, like Rava. Like whom is the Halachah?

8)

(a)The Tana Kama of the Beraisa declares Pasul, Tefilin that one overlaid with gold or that one covered with the skin of a non-Kasher animal - based on the Pasuk in Bo "Lema'an Tih'yeh Toras Hash-m be'Ficha" (from which we Darshen 'min ha'Mutar be'Ficha' [that they must be made from a species that may be eaten]).

(b)The reason that ...

1. ... he permits the skin of a Kasher animal even if it was not tanned for the sake of the Mitzvah is - because he holds 'Hazmanah La'av Milsa Hi' (in which case, it makes no difference how the skins are prepared).

2. ... Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel disagrees with this latter ruling, is - because he holds 'Hazmanah Milsa hi' ...

(c)... and it is his opinion that Abaye follows.

(d)When Ravina asked Rava how it was feasible for someone to die without shrouds having been made for him in advance, in order to bury him as quickly as possible, the latter replied 'K'gon Shichvi de'Harpanya' - like the dead of Harpanya' (who were very poor and who could not afford to purchase them in their lifetime).

(e)Mereimar rules like Abaye (regarding Hazmanah), the Rabbanan, like Rava. The Halachah is - like Rava.

9)

(a)According to the Tana Kama of the Beraisa, the property of someone who is sentenced to death by the king goes to the king, whereas that of someone wo is sentenced by Beis-Din goes to his heirs. What does Rebbi Yehudah say?

(b)How does Rebbi Yehudah counter the Rabbanan's ...

1. ... proof from Achav, who killed Navos for his vineyard?

2. ... counter-argument that Navos had many children, based on a Pasuk in Melachim?

(c)How do the Rabbanan then explain the Pasuk in Melachim?

(d)How will ...

1. ... Rebbi Yehudah explain the need for the Navi to add the word "u'Melech" (in the Pasuk "Barech Navos Elokim u'Melech" (since it does not affect the Din)?

2. ... the Rabbanan explain the need for the Navi to add the word "Elokim" (in the same Pasuk [seeing as, according to them it does not affect the Din either])?

9)

(a)According to the Tana Kama of the Beraisa, the property of someone sentenced to death by the king goes to the king, whereas that of someone who is sentenced by Beis-Din goes to his heirs. According to Rebbi Yehudah - both go to his heirs.

(b)Rebbi Yehudah counters the Rabbanan's ...

1. ... proof from Achav, who killed Navos for his vineyard - with the argument that since he was his first cousin, he was next of kin anyway.

2. ... counter-argument that Navos had many children - by citing the Pasuk in Melachim "Im Lo es D'mei Navos ve'es D'mei Banav Ra'isi", which he interprets to mean that Achav had Navos' children put to death too.

(c)According to the Rabbanan, this Pasuk refers (not to children that he already had, but) - to children who would have been born to him, had Achav not murdered him.

(d)

1. Rebbi Yehudah explains the need for the Navi to add the word "u'Melech" (in the Pasuk "Barech Navos Elokim u'Melech" [even though it does not affect the Din]) - to make the people more angry with Navos, to deflect their anger from him.

2. The Rabbanan explain the need for the Navi to add the word "Elokim" (in the same Pasuk) - for exactly the same reason.

10)

(a)Why did Yo'av run into the Azarah and hold on to the Mizbe'ach, according to ...

1. ... the Rabbanan?

2. ... Rebbi Yehudah?

(b)What did Yo'av instruct Benayahu ben Yehoyada, whom Shlomoh had sent to kill him, to relay to the King?

(c)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav points out how, now that Shlomoh chose to kill him, all the curses that David had placed on Yo'av, materialized on his own descendants. What happened to ...

1. ... Rechavam?

2. ... Uziyah?

3. ... Asa?

4. ... Yoshiyahu?

5. ... Yechonyah?

(d)In what way did Yechonyah lack bread?

10)

(a)Yo'av ran into the Azarah and held on to the Mizbe'ach, according to ...

1. ... the Rabbanan - to avoid being taken before the king and killed as a Mored be'Malchus, in which case his property would have gone to David, and not to his heirs. He therefore opted to be killed by Beis-Din.

2. ... Rebbi Yehudah - in order to buy time, whilst Benayahu went to the king to present his argument to Shlomoh Hamelech.

(b)Yo'av instructed Benayahu ben Yehoyada, whom Shlomoh had sent to kill him, to relay to the King that - he couldn't have it both ways; either he would leave him with the curses (that had already been stated), or he would kill him and accept the curses on his own descendants.

(c)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav points out how, now that Shlomoh chose to kill him, all the curses that David had placed on Yo'av, materialized on his own descendants, inasmuch as ...

1. ... Rechavam - was a Zav ...

2. ... Uziyah - contracted Tzara'as

3. ... Asa - became lame.

4. ... Yoshiyahu - was killed by the enemy (though not exactly by the sword, as we shall see).

5. ... Yechonyah - lacked bread ...

(d)... in that he did not have his own income, but was fed each day, at the table of Evyl Merodach (King of Bavel).

11)

(a)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav translates the lameness of Asa as 'Padgera'. How did Rav Nachman describe the way it feels to his son Mar Zutra?

(b)He may have known about it because he himself went through the experience. He may also have learned it from his Rebbe. What is the third alternative?

(c)What does Rav Yehudah Amar Rav comment about Yoshiyah's death at the hand of Par'oh Nechei's archers?

(d)What did Rav Yehudah Amar Rav mean when he commented on the episode with Shlomoh and Yo'av 'Tehei Luta ve'Al Tehei Lata'?

11)

(a)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav translates the lameness of Asa as 'Padgera'. Rav Nachman described the feeling to his son Mar Zutra as - like a needle pricking the flesh.

(b)He may have known about it because he himself went through the experience. He may also have learned it from his Rebbe. Alternatively, he knew about it - through "Sod Hash-m li'Yere'av" (Hash-m reveals His secrets to those who fear Him).

(c)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav comments that when Par'oh Nechei's archers killed Yashiyah - they riddled his body with three hundred arrows.

(d)When Rav Yehudah Amar Rav commented on the episode with Shlomoh and Yo'av 'Tehei Luta ve'Al Tehei Lata' he meant that - it is (sometimes) better to be cursed than to curse others, because an undeserved curse rebounds on oneself (as it did with David's descendents).

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