1)HOW MANY WILL BE SPARED?
(a)(Reish Lakish): "Hirchivah She'ol (Gehinom will accommodate, i.e. punish) li'Vli Chok" - even one who did not observe even one law. (Maharsha - his sins and Mitzvos were equal, he did not fulfill one additional Mitzvah which would have made him mostly Mitzvos; Sefer ha'Ikarim (brought in Anaf Yosef) - he needs Gehinom to achieve the ultimate perfection normally obtained through that Mitzvah; Ri Mintz (ibid) - one who cast off the yoke of a Mitzvah (was never careful to guard it) is like one who denies Torah, he is eternally punished).
(b)Objection (R. Yochanan): Hash-m will not judge so harshly!
1.Rather, even one who learned (Ramah - fulfilled) a single law will be spared. (Ri Mintz - he is eternally punished only if he says that there is no such Mitzvah in the Torah.)
(c)(Reish Lakish): "B'Chol ha'Aretz...Pi Shnayim Bah Yikarsu Yigva'u veha'Shelishis Yivaser Bah" - two thirds of the descendants of Shem's third son (Arpachshad) will die when Mashi'ach comes.
(d)Objection (R. Yochanan): Do not say this (if most descendants of Arpachshad at the time will be Yisrael, this would mean that a large portion of Yisrael will die)!
1.Rather, the third son of Noach's third son (i.e. all descendants of Arpachshad) will survive,
(e)(Reish Lakish (and Rav Kahana)): "V'Lakachti Eschem Echas me'Ir u'Shanyim mi'Mishpachah" is literally true (only one from a city or two from a nation (of Nochrim) will survive).
(f)Objection (R. Yochanan (and Rav)): Do not say this! Rather, Hash-m will spare a city even due to one Tzadik in it, and a nation due to two Tzadikim.
(g)Rav saw that Rav Kahana would shampoo his hair before coming to learn, he said "Lo Simatzei b'Eretz ha'Chayim."
1.Rav Kahana: Do you curse me?!
2.Rav: No - the verse means, Torah is not found in those who look to live comfortably.
(h)(Beraisa - R. Simai): "V'Lakachti Eschem...v'Heveisi Eschem" - the Torah equates leaving Mitzrayim to entering Eretz Yisrael - just like only two out of 600,000 (counted in the Midbar) entered Eretz Yisrael, also only two out of every 600,000 (that were in Mitzrayim) left Mitzrayim (the rest died during the plague of darkness).
(i)(Rava): The same applies to Yemos Mashi'ach - "Uch'Yom Alosah me'Eretz Mitzrayim."
2)TRAITS THAT HASH-M DESIRES
(a)(Beraisa - R. Elazar b'Rebbi Yosi): A Mitzri told me that the Mitzriyim drowned some Yisraelim in the sea, killed others by the sword, and mashed others into buildings (in place of bricks);
1.Moshe was punished for this - he said "Ume'Az Basi El Paro...Hera la'Am ha'Zeh";
2.Hash-m: There is no one today like the Avos! I promised Eretz Yisrael to the Avos with the name "Kel Shakai", they never asked My name (i.e. which attribute will fulfill the promise);
i.I told Avraham "Hishalech ba'Aretz...Ki Lecha Etnenah"; he could not find a burial place for Sarah until he paid 400 Shekalim, he did not resent this;
ii.I told Yitzchak "Gur ba'Aretz ha'Zos v'Ehyeh Imcha va'Avarcheka"; his slaves could not find water to drink without contention, he did not resent this;
iii.I told Yakov "Ha'Aretz Asher Atah Shochev Aleha Lecha Etnenah"; he could not find a place to pitch his tent until he paid 100 Keshitah, he did not resent this;
iv.None of them asked My name - but you (Moshe) asked My name from the beginning, and now you say "Lo Hitzalta Es Amecha" - "Atah Sir'eh Asher E'eseh l'Far'o", but you will not live to see what I will do to the 31 kings in Eretz Yisrael (when Bnei Yisrael enter).
(b)Question: "Va'Ymaher Moshe va'Yikod Artzah va'Yishtachu" - what did he see (that made him rush to bow)?
(c)Answer #1 (R. Chanina ben Gamliel): He saw the attribute 'Erech Apayim' (slow to anger).
(d)Answer #2 (Rabanan): He saw the attribute of Emes.
(e)Support (for R. Chanina ben Gamliel - Beraisa): When Moshe went up to receive the Torah, he saw Hash-m writing "Erech Apayim" (in the Torah). Moshe said that this should be only for Tzadikim.
1.Hash-m: It is even for Resha'im.
2.Moshe: Resha'im should perish!
3.Hash-m: You will (later) see the need for Erech Apayim for Resha'im.
4.When Yisrael sinned (with the Meraglim, and Moshe prayed that Yisrael be spared), Hash-m said 'you said that Erech Apayim should be only for Tzadikim!'
5.Moshe: "V'Atah Yigdal Na Ko'ach Hash-m Ka'asher Dibarta Leimor (Hash-m Erech Apayim)" - You said that it is even for Resha'im.
(f)R. Chaga heard a child saying "Edosecha Ne'emnu Me'od...Hash-m l'Orech Yamim (i.e. the attribute Erech Apayim)" - (presumably, Moshe said this, for) this is shortly after "Tefilah l'Moshe";
1.R. Chaga: This shows that he saw Erech Apayim.
(g)(R. Elazar): In the future, Hash-m will be a crown on every Tzadik - "B'Yom ha'Hu Yihyeh Hash-m Tzevakos la'Ateres Tzvi..."
(h)Question: What does it mean "La'Ateres Tzvi veli'Tzfiras Tif'arah"?
(i)Answer: This is for those who do His Tzivyon (will) and await His Tif'arah (glory).
(j)Suggestion: Perhaps this is for all who do His will, even if they get haughty!
(k)Rejection: "Li'Sh'ar Amo" - only for one who considers himself like Shirayim (leftovers).
(l)"Ul'Ru'ach Mishpat" is one who rules over his Yetzer ha'Ra; "Ul'Yoshev Al ha'Mishpat" is a judge who gives the proper verdict; "Veli'Gvurah" is one who overcomes his Yetzer ha'Ra; "Meshivei Milchamah" is one who debates in Torah; "Sharah" - these are those who come early and stay late in Batei Keneses and Batei Medrash.
(m)Midas ha'Din: Why are Tzadikim with these Midos treated better than others who do Your will?
(n)Hash-m: The others (were not such Tzadikim -) "Ba'Yayin Shagu...";
1."Paku" - they will go to Gehinom, due to "Peliliyah" (judgment, when they were drunk).
(a)(Mishnah): Residents of an Ir ha'Nidachas....[have no share in the world to come - "Yatzu Anashim Bnei Veliya'al mi'Kirbecha (they left your midst, i.e. your share in the world to come)." Ran deletes this from the text, for those killed by Beis Din confess and have a share in the world to come.]
(b)They are beheaded only if they were enticed by men of their city and Shevet, and the majority of the city was enticed;
1.If the enticers were women or children or came from outside of (the city), or if the minority of the city was enticed, they are stoned like individuals who served idolatry.
(c)(Two) witnesses and warning are required for every transgressor.
(d)A stringency of individuals (killed for idolatry) over a city - individuals are stoned, therefore (the Torah is lenient about their money), their money passes to their heirs;
1.A city is beheaded, therefore their money is destroyed - "Hake Sakeh...l'Fi Charev."
(e)If a caravan of donkey-drivers or camel-drivers stayed in the city (for 30 days), they are considered residents (when calculating whether or not the majority served idolatry), they can cause the city to be saved (or destroyed) - "Ha'Charem Osah v'Es Kol Asher Bah"...
1.This teaches that property of Tzadikim in the city is destroyed, their property outside the city is not;
(f)Property of the Resha'im, even outside of the city is destroyed - "V'Es Kol Shelalah."
(g)If there is no square (meeting place) in the city, we build one; if it is outside the city, we bring it in - "Tikbotz El Toch Rechovah."
(h)"V'Sarafta...v'Es Kol Shelalah" - its spoils, and not Hash-m's - this teaches that if there was Hekdesh inside, we redeem it (and do not burn it); if there was Terumah, we let it rot; if there was Ma'aser Sheni and Kisvei ha'Kodesh, they are buried.
(i)R. Shimon says, "Kalil la'Shem" teaches that if we properly destroy an Ir ha'Nidachas, Hash-m considers it like an Olah (which is Kalil, totally consumed on the Mizbe'ach).
(j)R. Yosi ha'Galili says "V'Haysah Tel Olam" forbids using it for gardens or orchards;
(k)R. Akiva says, "Lo Sibaneh Od" forbids rebuilding it as it was (a city), but it may be used for gardens or orchards.
(l)"Ve'Lo Yidbak b'Yadcha Me'umah Min ha'Cherem" - as long as there are Resha'im in the world, Hash-m's anger is in the world; when Resha'im perish from the world, Hash-m's anger leaves the world.
(m)(Gemara - Beraisa): "Yatzu" - enticers themselves, and not their messengers; "Anashim" - this denotes at least two, and excludes women and children;
1."Bnei Veliya'al" - children (Bli Ol) that cast the yoke of Shamayim off their necks;
2."Mi'Kirbecha" - amidst you, and not from the border of Eretz Yisrael;
3."Yoshvei Iram" - not residents of another city;
4."Leimor" - witnesses and warning are required for every transgressor;
4)DIVIDING A CITY AMONG TWO TRIBES
(a)(R. Yochanan): A city may be divided among two tribes.
(b)(Reish Lakish): It may not be divided among two tribes.
(c)Question (R. Yochanan - Mishnah): They are beheaded only if they were enticed by men of their city and Shevet.
1.Suggestion: Even though the enticers are from the same city, it only becomes an Ir ha'Nidachas if they are from the same Shevet, i.e. the city was divided among two tribes!
(d)Answer: No, the case is, people from a different Shevet inherited (or received a gift of) land in the city.
(e)Question: "Arim Tesha me'Es Shnei ha'Shevatim ha'Elu";
1.Suggestion: Each Shevet gave four and a half cities, i.e. a city was divided among two tribes!
(f)Answer: No, one Shevet gave four cities, the other gave five.
(g)Question: If so, the verse should specify how many each gave!
(h)This is left difficult.