(a)"Mo'av Sir Rachtzi" refers to Geichazi, who was stricken with Tzara'as (for deceiving Na'aman after Na'aman Rochatz (washed, i.e. immersed) to be cured from Tzara'as);

1."Al Edom Ashlich Na'ali" refers to Do'eg ha'Edomi.

(b)The angels asked, if David, who killed the Plishti (Galyus) will complain why Do'eg and Achitofel are in the world to come, how will You answer?

(c)Hash-m: "Alai Peleshes Hisro'a'i" - it is Alai (incumbent on me) to make them Re'im (friends).

(d)(Implied question): "Shovevah ha'Am ha'Zeh Yerushalayim Meshuvah Nitzachas" - what did Yisrael (consider to be an unbeatable) answer to the Navi?

(e)Answer #1 (Rav): Zecharyah told them 'do Teshuvah. "Avoseichem Ayei Hem" (your fathers who sinned, where are they?!)'

1.Version #1 - Maharsha - Yisrael: Your Nevi'im who did not sin, where are they?

2.Zecharyah: "Veha'Nevi'im hal'Olam Yichyu" (We know that the Nevi'im are in the world to come - we do not know about your fathers!)

3."Va'Yashuvu va'Yomru..." (they admitted that Zecharyah was right).

4.Version #2 - Ben Yehoyada - Yisrael: Your Nevi'im who did not sin, where are they - "veha'Nevi'im hal'Olam Yichyu?"!

5.Zecharyah: "Devarai v'Chukai Asher Tzivisi Es Avadai ha'Nevi'im ha'Lo Hisigu Avoseichem va'Yashuvu va'Yomru...uch'Mo'alaleinu Ken Asah Lanu" (when the punishments prophesized for your fathers came true, they repented and admitted that they were worthy of it, so they have a share in the world to come. You do not repent!)

(f)Answer #2 (Shmuel): Ten men sat in front of Yechezkeil (20:1). He told them to do Teshuvah;

1.The men: If a master sold his slave, or a husband divorced his wife, he has no more claim on him (or her. Likewise, Hash-m has no more claim on us!)

2.Hash-m told Yechezkeil to tell them (the verse from Yeshayah) "Ei Zeh Sefer Kerisus Imchem... Mi mi'Noshai Asher Mocharti Eschem Lo Hen ba'Avonoseichem Nimkartem uv'Fish'achem Shulchah Imchem"? (I did not divorce or sell Yisrael!)

3.Question (Reish Lakish): Why is Nebuchadnetzar called "Avdi", just like David is?

4.Answer: Hash-m knew that Yisrael would say this (what the 10 men said), therefore He called Nebuchadnetzar a slave;

i.If a slave acquires property, the slave and the property belong to the master. (Therefore, Yisrael still belong to Hash-m.)

5.(Rav Nachman): "Veha'Olah Al Ru'chachem... Nihyeh cha'Goyim.... Leshares Etz va'Aven... uv'Chemah Shefuchah Emloch Aleichem" - may Hash-m show this anger and redeem us!

(g)Answer #3 (Rabah bar bar Chanah): "Va'Yisru la'Mishpat..." - when Yeshayah told Yisrael to do Teshuvah, they said that the Yetzer ha'Ra rules over them;

1.Yeshayah: Afflict your inclinations!

2.Yisrael: "Elokav Yorenu (Hash-m, Who created the Yetzer, should instruct it what to do)."


(a)The four commoners are Bil'am, Do'eg, Achitofel and Gechazi.

(b)He is called Bil'am because he was b'Lo Am (he is not part of any nation). Alternatively, Balah (he confused) Am (Yisrael, causing us to sin with Benos Midyan);

1.Ben Be'or - he had Bi'ah with Be'ir (an animal).

(c)The real name of "Kushan Risha'sayim" was Lavan. He is called Kushan Risha'sayim because he did two evils to Yisrael:

1.One was pursuing Yakov, with intent to destroy him. The other was in the time of the Shoftim (he conquered Yisrael).

(d)Contradiction: It says "Ben Be'or", and it says "Beno Ve'or"!

(e)Resolution (R. Yochanan): His father was like a son (i.e. inferior) to him in prophecy.

(f)Inference: Bil'am has no share in the world to come, but other Nochrim do. Our Mishnah is like R. Yehoshua;

1.(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): "Yashuvu Resha'im li'Sh'olah" refers to Yisrael Resha'im; "Kol Goyim Shecheichei Elokim" are Nochri Resha'im;

2.R. Yehoshua: It does not say 'b'Chol (some texts - k'Chol) Goyim' (which would imply that all Nochrim have no share in the world to come). Rather, it says "Kol Goyim Shecheichei Elokim", i.e. the Resha'im among them.

(g)Bil'am gave a sign that he has no share - "Tamos Nafshi Mos Yesharim." If I will die like Tzadikim (a normal death), this proves that I have a share in the world to come. If not, "I will go to (Gehinom, like) my nation."


(a)(Beraisa): "Va'Yelchu Ziknei Mo'av v'Ziknei Midyan" - Mo'av and Midyan were always fighting. This is like two dogs that were always angry at each other. A wolf attacked one of them. The other reasoned 'if I do not help it now, the wolf will kill it and attack me tomorrow.' It helped the other dog to kill the wolf.

1.(Rav Papa): This is like people say, the weasel and the cat (which always fight) made a feast out of their unlucky victim.

(b)Question: "Va'Yeshvu Sarei Mo'av Im Bil'am" - what happened to the officers of Midyan?

(c)Answer: When Bil'am told them 'Linu... va'Hashivosi Eschem Davar" (I will see if Hash-m will allow me to go), they despaired. A father does not hate his children (surely, Hash-m will not let him go)!

(d)(Rav Nachman): Impudence works, even towards Hash-m. Initially, Hash-m told Bil'am "Lo Selech Imahem." After Bil'am persisted, He said "Lech Itam."

1.(Rav Sheshes): Impudence is a king without a crown (people fear the impudent) - "va'Anochi Melech veha'Anashim ha'Eleh Bnei Tzeruyah Kashim Mimeni."

(e)(R. Yochanan): "Va'Yelech Shefi" - Bil'am was lame in one foot;

1."Shefifun Alei Orach" refers to Shimshon. He was lame in both feet.

(f)Bil'am was blind in one eye - "Shesum ha'Ayin."

(g)Bil'am conjured with his Ever. He said about himself "Nofel u'Gluy Einayim", similar to "v'Haman Nofel Al ha'Mitah."

(h)(Mar Zutra): Bil'am conjured with his Ever (he learns from "v'Haman Nofel");

(i)(Mar brei d'Ravina): He had Bi'ah with his donkey;

1.He learns from "Bein Ragleha Kora Nofal."


2.Question: Why does it say "v'Yode'a Da'as Elyon"? He did not even know his donkey's mind, how could he know Hash-m's?!

i.When the Moabite nobles asked why he was riding on a donkey and not a horse, Bilam said that he left his horse grazing.

ii.His donkey: "Ha'Lo Anochi Asonecha."

iii.Bilam: You are for carrying burdens.

iv.His donkey: "Asher Rochavta Alai."

v.Bilam: Only occasionally.

vi.His donkey: "Me'Odecha Ad ha'Yom ha'Zeh!" You ride on me by day, and sleep with me at night - "ha'Hasken Hiskanti" (from the root of Sochenes, which discusses the virgin picked to warm David).

3.Answer: "V'Yode'a Da'as Elyon" teaches that Bilam knew when is the moment of Hash-m's fury.


(a)(R. Elazar): "Ami Zechor... u'Meh Onah Oso Bilam... Lema'an Da'as Tzidkos Hash-m" - we should know what Hash-m did for us. He was not angry for a moment during the entire time that Bilam was trying to curse us;

1.Had He been angry, (Bilam would have succeeded to curse us, and) there would be no remnant of us.

2.This explains "Mah Ekov Lo Kaboh Kel u'Mah Ez'om Lo Zo'am Hash-m."

(b)Question: What is the source that Hash-m's fury is a Rega?

(c)Answer #1: It says "Ki Rega b'Apo."

(d)Answer #2: "Chavi Chim'at Rega Ad Ya'avor Zo'am."

(e)Question: When does this Rega come?

(f)Answer (Abaye): It is in the first three hours of the day, when a rooster's mane turns white.

(g)Question: Its mane is always white!

(h)Answer: All other times, it has red speckles. During the Rega, it is totally white.

(i)A certain Min was bothering R. Yehoshua ben Levi with (perverted explanations of) verses. R. Yehoshua ben Levi set a rooster between the legs of his bed. He intended to curse him when the mane turned all white.

1.At the time, R. Yehoshua ben Levi fell asleep. He realized that Hash-m did not want him to curse him - "v'Rachamav Al Kol Ma'asav";

2.Also, it says "Gam Anosh la'Tzadik Lo Tov."

(j)(Beraisa - R. Meir): When kings put on their crowns and bow to the sun, immediately Hash-m gets angry.

(k)(R. Shimon ben Elazar): Love overturns civilities. "Va'Yashkem Avraham ba'Boker (va'Yachavosh Es Chamoro)" - he saddled his own donkey, which important people never do, to do Hash-m's will (the Akeidah);

1.Hate overturns civilities. "Va'Yakam Bil'am ba'Boker va'Yachavosh Es Asono" - he saddled his own donkey to go to curse Yisrael.

(l)(Rav Yehudah): One should always engage in Torah and Mitzvos, even Lo Lishmah, for this will lead him to do them Lishmah.

1.A reward for the 42 Korbanos that Balak brought (in order that Hash-m should allow Bil'am to curse Yisrael) was that he merited that Rus descend from him.

2.(R. Yosi bar Chanina): Rus was the daughter of Eglon, the grandson of Balak.

(m)Question (Rava): It says "Yitav Elokim Es Shem Shlomo mi'Shimcha va'Yigdal Es Kis'o mi'Kis'echa." It is improper to tell this to a king (it will make him feel bad)!

(n)Answer (Rabah): "Mi'Shimcha" and "mi'Kis'echa" do not mean that Shlomo's will be greater, rather, it will have a semblance of David's.

1.Support: "Ya'el... mi'Nashim ba'Ohel Tevorach."

2.Question: The "women in the tent" are Sarah, Rivkah, Rachel and Leah. Surely, Ya'el will not be more blessed than them!

3.Answer: Her blessing will have a semblance of theirs.

(o)Rabah and Rava argue with Rav Yosi bar Choni.

1.(Rav Yosi bar Choni): One is envious of everyone, except for his son and his Talmid:

i.We learn from Shlomo that he does not envy his son (therefore, it was a proper blessing that Shlomo be more exalted than David);

ii.We can learn that he does not envy his Talmid from "vi'Hi Na Pi Shnayim b'Ru'chacha Elai" (Elisha asked his Rebbi (Eliyahu) for twice the Ru'ach (ha'Kodesh) of Eliyahu himself, and Eliyahu consented);

iii.Alternatively, we learn from "va'Yismoch Es Yadav Alav." (Moshe was commanded to put one hand on Yehoshua (to pass Ru'ach to him), and he put both hands on him.)


(a)(R. Elazar): "Va'Yasem Hash-m Davar b'Fi Bil'am" - He appointed an angel over him;

(b)(R. Yonason): He put a hook in his mouth to prevent him from cursing Yisrael.

(c)(R. Yochanan): From Bil'am's blessings, we can infer what he wanted to curse:

(d)"Mah Tovu Ohalecha" - he wanted that we should not have Batei Keneses and Batei Medrash;

1."Mishkenosecha Yisrael" - he wanted that the Shechinah should not rest on them;

2."Ki'Nchalim Nitayu" - their kingdom should not last;

3."K'Ganos Alei Nahar" - they should not have olives and vineyards;

4."Ka'Ahalim Nota Hash-m" - they should not have a pleasing scent;

5."Ka'Arazim Alei Mayim" - they should not have kings of stature;

6."Yizal Mayim mi'Dalav" - they should not establish the king's son to be the next king;

7."V'Zar'o b'Mayim Rabim" - they should not rule over nations;

8."V'Yarom me'Agag Malko" - their kingdom should not be strong;

9."V'Sinasei Malchuso" - their kingdom should not be awesome.

(e)(R. Aba bar Kahana): All of these reverted to curses, except for the blessing of Batei Keneses and Batei Medrash - "va'Yahafoch Es ha'Klalah li'Vrachah" (only one curse was permanently transformed to a blessing).

(f)(R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): "Ne'emanim Pitz'ei Ohev v'Ne'etaros Neshikos Sonei" - Achiyah ha'Shiloni's curse against Yisrael was better than Bil'am's blessings.

1.Achiyah said "v'Hikah Hash-m Es Yisrael Ka'asher Yanud ha'Kaneh ba'Mayim (Yisrael should be stricken like a reed)";

i.A reed grows near water. It grows back when it is cut. It has many roots. The strongest winds do not uproot it. It bends with them, and when they desist it stands erect.