[21a - 35 lines; 21b - 36 lines]

1)[line 8]"[וַיִּקְרְאוּ בְּקוֹל גָּדוֹל] וַיִּתְגֹּדְדוּ כְּמִשְׁפָּטָם בַּחֲרָבוֹת וּבָרְמָחִים; [עַד שְׁפָךְ דָּם עֲלֵיהֶם]""[VA'YIKRE'U B'KOL GADOL,] VA'YISGODEDU K'MISHPATAM, BA'CHARAVOS U'VA'REMACHIM; [AD SHEFOCH DAM ALEIHEM]" - "[And they called out on top of their voices,] and they cut themselves, as was their custom, with swords and spears [until blood was pouring all over them]" (Melachim I 18:28) (ELIYAHU AND THE PROPHETS OF BA'AL)

(a)When the wicked King Achav addressed Eliyahu ha'Navi as "Ocher Yisrael" (one who destroys Israel) for having decreed a famine in the land, the latter arranged a confrontation with the 450 prophets of the idol Ba'al, plus 400 prophets of Asheirah, on Mount Carmel. All of Yisrael was invited to witness the event, at which Eliyahu intended to demonstrate to Yisrael that HaSh-m is the true G-d.

(b)Eliyahu challenged Yisrael to make up their minds whether to worship HaSh-m or Ba'al. He took two bulls; the prophets of Ba'al would choose one, leaving him with the other. Both parties would then prepare an altar and firewood, on which they would place their cut-up bull as a sacrifice. Each party would then beseech his god to send fire from Heaven and consume their animal. Whichever G-d responded would prove Himself to be the true G-d.

(c)The entire morning up until close to Minchah time, accompanied by the taunts of Eliyahu, the prophets of Ba'al ranted and raved, pranced on their altar and, in their frenzy, they even cut themselves in an attempt to arouse their god, but to no avail.

(d)Eliyahu then called upon Yisrael to watch carefully. He began by rebuilding a Mizbe'ach that King Shaul had once built and that the idolaters had demolished, and he dug a large ditch around it. Then, after cutting up the bull, and placing it on the wood which he had arranged on the altar, he ordered that four large jugs of water to be poured over the animal and the wood. They did so, and the water flowed into the ditch and filled it.

(d)It was at Minchah time that he finished his preparations and prayed to HaSh-m to answer his prayers and show the people that He was G-d. As he finished his prayer, a fire came from Heaven and burned the bull, together with the wood and the stones of the altar, and it even licked the water in the ditch and dried it up. The people got the message and announced unanimously, "HaSh-m is G-d!"

2)[line 9]מחויMACHVI- he showed, demonstrated

3a)[line 9]פירקי רישאPIRKEI RESHA- (literally, the joints of the head) the temples (he pointed to the temples to show where the Pe'os are)

b)[line 10]פרקי דיקנאPIRKEI DIKNA- the joints of the beard (he pointed to which parts of the beard are considered Pe'os)

4)[line 12]במספריםMISPERAYIM- scissors

5)[line 16]גזירה שוהGEZEIRAH SHAVAH

(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Gezeirah Shavah, which is a Halachic device by which two similar words in the Torah from different subjects teach that laws from one subject apply to the other.

(b)A sage may use the method of Gezeirah Shavah only if he received a tradition from his teachers that a Gezeirah Shavah exists between the two words. However, the comparison that he makes regarding which laws are applied from one subject to the other may be his own, in the event that he did not learn this directly from his teachers.

6)[line 17]הכותב כתובת קעקעHA'KOSEV KESOVES KA'AKA- one who writes a tattoo on his skin

7a)[line 18](בידו) [בדיו]BI'DEYO- with ink

b)[line 18]ובכחולUVI'KECHOL- and with a blue or tinted powder used for painting the eyelids

8)[line 20]את השםES HA'SHEM- the name [of an idol]

9)[line 24]אפר מקלהEFER MAKLEH- ashes of burned wood. Rav Malkiya (or Rav Malkiyo, according to Rav Papa; see RASHI DH "Masnisa Malkesa") prohibits placing Efer Makleh on a wound because of its similarity to tattooing.

10)[line 25]שפודSHAPUD- a spit or skewer. A spit that was used on Yom Tov becomes Muktzeh. Rav Malkiyo permits moving it indirectly to the side.

11)[line 25]שפחותSHEFACHOS- maidservants. Rav Malkiyo (or Rav Malkiya, according to Rav Papa) rules that the Halachah follows the opinion of Rebbi Eliezer quoted in the Mishnah in Kesuvos (5:5, Daf 59b), that even a bride who brings one hundred maidservants into the new household must perform some productive physical work, because idleness leads to immorality.

12)[line 25]וגומותGUMOS- follicles, or cavities. In Nidah 52a, Rebbi Chelbo rules that in order for two pubic hairs to be a sign of legal adulthood, they must grow from well-defined pores. Rav Malkiyo rules that the presence of two such pores itself a sign of adulthood, even if no hairs are found growing from them, since we assume that there were hairs but that the hairs fell out.

13)[line 25]בלוריתBELORIS- Idolaters would grow a Beloris, long hair grown at the back of the head by youths of the upper classes in honor of their gods, and that was cut off and offered to their gods once a year. The Mishnah in Avodah Zarah (29a) requires a Jewish barber giving a haircut to an idolater to leave extra hair uncut around the Beloris, so as not to participate in an idolatrous practice. Rav Malkiya cites a ruling defining the extra space as three finger-breadths in all directions.

14)[line 26]וגבינהGEVINAH- cheese. Rav Malkiya explained (Avodah Zarah 35b) that the reason for the prohibition of the Mishnah (ibid. 29b) against cheeses made by Nochrim is because they smear pig fat on them.

15)[line 26]מתניתין ומתניתא רב מלכיא, שמעתתא רב מלכיוMASNISIN U'MASNISA RAV MALKIYA, SHMAITSA RAV MALKIYO- the rulings that refer to a Mishnah or a Beraisa were said by Rav Malkiya, and the rulings that refer to statements of Amora'im were said by Rav Malkiyo

16)[line 28]אריבדא דכוסילתאA'RIVDA D'CHUSILTA- [he was insistent that ashes not be placed even] on the incision made by the blood-letting tool

21b----------------------------------------21b

17)[line 3]וכלאים בכרםKIL'AYIM B'KEREM (KIL'EI HA'KEREM)

(a)The word Kil'ayim means "forbidden mixture," which refers to two items, each of which is permitted, which the Torah prohibits to combine. Although the term "Kil'ayim" refers to many different types of forbidden mixtures (see Background to Kidushin 39:23a), only Kil'ei ha'Kerem is Asur b'Hana'ah.

(b)Kil'ei ha'Kerem refers to the prohibition of sowing vegetables or grains in a vineyard, as the Torah states, "Lo Sizra Karmecha Kil'ayim, Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah ha'Zera Asher Tizra u'Sevu'as ha'Karem" - "You shall not sow your vineyard with other species, lest the fruit of the seed which you have sown, and the fruit of the vineyard, be forfeited" (Devarim 22:9). According to some Tana'im, even if one finds other crops growing in his vineyard and does not remove them, he transgresses this prohibition. One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to receive Malkus.

(c)Many Tana'im maintain that the prohibition of Kil'ei ha'Kerem forbids planting any vegetable or grain in a pre-existing vineyard, as well as sowing grape seeds together with any vegetable or grain. However, Rebbi Yoshiyah rules that the prohibition of Kil'ei ha'Kerem only applies to sowing grape seeds along with wheat and barley kernels in the same throw of a hand (Berachos 22a). According to this view, one who plants grapes, wheat and barley in such a manner transgresses both the prohibition of Kil'ei ha'Kerem and the prohibition of Kil'ei Zera'im (see Background to Kidushin 39:23a:c; Tosfos Kidushin 39a DH Lo).

(d)It is even prohibited to plant vegetables or grains outside of a vineyard in close proximity to it. Such plants must be planted at least 6 Tefachim away from a single grapevine and at least 4 Amos away from a vineyard. ("Vineyard," in this respect, refers to at least five grapevines, planted in a formation of two parallel rows of two with a fifth vine between (and behind) the two rows - see Background to Sotah 43:29). The grapevines and the vegetables or grains that grow in a vineyard that has been planted with Kil'ei ha'Kerem are prohibited to be eaten. They must be burned, as the Torah says, "Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah...," which the Gemara translates as, "lest the produce (of that vineyard) have to be burned ('Tukad Esh')" (RAMBAM Hilchos Kil'ayim 5:7).

(e)Although the Torah only prohibits Kil'ei ha'Kerem in Eretz Yisrael, as with any other Mitzvos ha'Teluyos ba'Aretz, the Rabanan prohibited it in Chutz la'Aretz as well (Kidushin 38b).

18)[line 5]אינו השםEINO HA'SHEM- it is not of the same nature. This transgression is not a direct result of his act of plowing, as were the previous ones, but rather it is a result of wearing a forbidden garment while he plows.

19)[line 8]בית יד אונקליBEIS YAD UNKALI- [he slips his arm into his] sleeve

20)[line 13]החופהHA'CHOFEH- one who covers

21)[line 18]דמיכסי בהדיה דאזילD'MICHSI BAHADEI D'AZIL- that he covered them (the seeds) as he was walking

22)[line 19]דדלאי לך חספאD'DALA'I LACH CHASPA- that I lifted up for you a potsherd

23)[line 20]מרגניתא תותהMARGENISA TUSAH- a gem underneath it

24)[line 21]דקילסך גברא רבהKILSACH GAVRA RABAH- a great man praised you

25)[line 24]המנכשHA'MENACHESH- one who weeds

26)[line 32]חילוק מלאכות בשבתCHILUK MELACHOS B'SHABBOS

(a)For every Melachah of Shabbos that a person transgresses, he must bring a separate Korban Chatas. Similarly, if a person forgets that a certain Melachah is Asur and does that Melachah, then remembers that it is prohibited, and again forgets it is prohibited and repeats the act, he must bring two Korbanos. That is, if a person transgresses two (or more) Melachos during the same He'elem (period of forgetfulness) or one Melachah in two (or more) Ha'alemos, he must bring two (or more) Korbenos Chatas.

(b)This is not true of Yom Tov. No matter how many Isurim of Yom Tov a person transgresses under one Hasra'ah (warning),he receives Malkus only once for all of them.

27)[line 33]עדא תהאADA TEHEI- this [answer] should be!

28)[line 34]גיד [הנשה]GID HA'NASHEH

(a)The Gid ha'Nasheh is the sciatic nerve, the large main nerve of the lower extremity, running down the back of the leg. Eating the part of the Gid ha'Nasheh that is located on the rounded part of flesh ("Kaf") that sits on the hipbone is prohibited by the Torah (Bereishis 32:33).

(b)Rebbi Yehudah rules that the prohibition only applies to one leg. There is a question whether he says that it "definitely applies" or "most likely applies" to the right leg. According to the other Tana'im, the prohibition applies to both legs (and the Halachah follows this opinion).

(c)This prohibition applies only to wild or domestic four-legged animals, but not to birds.

(d)Besides the Gid that is prohibited by the Torah, the Rabanan prohibited certain nearby fats and nerves.

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