KERISUS 24 (20 Nisan) - Dedicated by Mr. Martin Fogel of Carlsbad, California, in memory of his father, Yaakov ben Shlomo Fogel, on the day of his nineteenth Yahrzeit.

[24a - 35 lines; 24b - 30 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 24b DH b'Shelama (at the end of the page) : ד"ה בשלמא

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #13


1a)[line 8]לאושוליL'OSHOLEI- to lend others

b)[line 8]הוה מושלי ליהHAVAH MOSHLEI LEI- others would lend him

2)[line 16]המעריך עצמוHA'MA'ARICH ATZMO- one who has obligated himself to pay an Erech to Hekdesh and is being evaluated b'Heseg Yad (see Background to Erchin 4:9)

3)[line 18]אע''פ שאמרו עבדים נמכריןAF AL PI SHE'AMRU AVADIM NIMKARIN- even though the Chachamim said that slaves are sold for a higher price with their clothes. This is the beginning of a new statement of the Mishnah. A slave is worth more when he is well-clothed, and we are permitted to invest an orphan's money in clothes for the slave when we plan on selling him. Nevertheless, Hekdesh does not require a person, who is being judged b'Heseg Yad, to buy clothes for his slave.

4)[line 20]איטליסITLIS- to the marketplace

5)[line 22]שלא ישהה מרגלית לקליםSHE'LO YASH'HE MARGALIS LA'KALIM- [this verse teaches] that we do not postpone [the selling of] a gem for poor people. The value of a gem is assessed according to how much it is worth in the place where the poor person lives, and according to the time of the vow. We do not assess it according to its value if it would be taken to a large city or if we would wait for a merchant to town.


6)[line 29]גירועGEIRU'A (GEIRA'ON KESEF)

When redeeming a Sedeh Achuzah from Hekdesh (see Background to Erchin 14:5), its "value" is determined according to the fixed endowment value stated in Vayikra 27:16, i.e. 50 silver Shekels for every parcel of land that is normally sown with a Chomer (1 Chomer = 1 Kur = 30 Se'ah or approximately 216, 248.9 or 432 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley seed (75,000 sq. Amos - see Background to Kidushin 60:17). However, fifty Shekels are given only if the field was redeemed at the beginning of a new Yovel cycle; the amount decreases proportionally with every year that passes until it is less than two years before the next Yovel. At that point, it is once again redeemed for fifty Shekels per Chomer.

7)[line 32]מכורהMECHURAH - a Sedeh Achuzah that was sold (MECHIRAS SEDEH ACHUZAH)

(a)A Sedeh Achuzah is a field that came into the possession of its owner's family after the conquest and division of Eretz Yisrael, at the time of Yehoshua bin Nun.

(b)Such a field may be sold only until the Yovel year, at which time it automatically returns to the possession of its original owner (Vayikra 25:25-28). Because of this, when a person sells an ancestral field, he normally intends to sell only the Peiros, or produce, of the land until the Yovel year, and not the land itself (Gitin 48a).

(c)Beginning two years after the sale, the original owner may redeem the field from the person who purchased it. He does so by returning the proportion of the money that was paid for the remaining years until the Yovel year (Erchin 29a). The buyer is forced to accept the redemption money and return the field.

(d)If a person sold his field in the Yovel year itself, Rav maintains that the sale takes effect, but the field returns to the seller. Shmuel rules that the sale does not take effect.


8)[line 20]הקדיש שתים ושלש שנים לפני היובלHIKDISH SHETAYIM V'SHALOSH SHANIM LIFNEI HA'YOVEL- if one was Makdish his field two or three years before the Yovel year. Rebbi mentions "two or three years" to exclude less than two years (in which case the full 50 Shekels are paid for each Beis Kor; see above, entry #6).

9)[line 23]שנת חמשים עולה לכאן ולכאןSHNAS CHAMISHIM OLAH L'CHAN UL'CHAN

Rebbi Yehudah and the Rabanan argue concerning the status of the Yovel year, the fiftieth year (after seven cycles Shemitah have passed). The Rabanan maintain that the Yovel year serves as the fiftieth and final year of the Yovel cycle, and it does not serve as the first year of the next cycle. Rebbi Yehudah, on the other hand, maintains that the Yovel year is not only the fiftieth and final year of the Yovel cycle, but it also serves as the first year of the next Yovel cycle ("Shenas Chamishim Olah l'Chan ule'Chan"). (See Insights to Nedarim 61:1.)