[109a - 26 lines; 109b - 42 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos
 Gemara 109b :
"Ha Kamashma Lan, d'Lo Ba'inan Shesi va'Erev v'Tacho ba'Kosel"הא קמ''ל דלא בעינן שתי וערב וטחו בכותל
The words "v'Tacho baKosel" וטחו בכותל are superfluous. They do not appear in the Rif, Ran, Ramban (in Sefer Milchamos HaSh-m) or other Rishonim
(a) From the Milchamos HaSh-m it is clear that the Girsa of Rashi (DH Ha Kamashma Lan הא קמ''ל) and Tosfos (DH Hahu ההוא) in the Gemara is:
"Ha Kamashma Lan d'Lo Ba'inan Shesi va'Erev Ela l'Kedeirah" הא קמ''ל דלא בעינן שתי וערב אלא לקדירה .This is also the Girsa of the Rosh 8:24
(b) The Ramban himself prefers the Girsa of the Geonim:
"Ha Kamashma Lan d'Lo Ba'inan Shesi va'Erev Iy Nami l'Kedeirah" הא קמ''ל דלא בעינן שתי וערב אי נמי לקדירה
(This is also the Girsa of the Rif, Rabeinu Gershom, and Rach)
1)[line 23]ותו לא מידיV'SU LO MIDI- and there is nothing more to be said; the challenge of Rav Acha mi'Difti, that the Rabanan and Rebbi Yehudah agree that Efshar l'Sochto Asur, and that they argue as to whether Min b'Mino is Batel or not, is refuted
(a)The Kechal is the udder of a Kosher animal. Our Mishnah records the Halachos of the Kechal, whether the animal is a baby that has never nursed any young, or whether it is full-grown and its udder is filled with milk. According to Torah law, the Kechal is not prohibited, since the prohibition of cooking meat in milk does not apply to the milk of an animal that has been slaughtered (Chulin 113b). The Rabanan, however, prohibited the milk of an animal that was slaughtered. Therefore, they instituted that if one tears the Kechal and removes the milk by squeezing it against a wall, it is permitted to eat the Kechal even if it is cooked with other meat (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 9:12).
(b)It is prohibited to cook a Kechal that was not torn and the milk of which was not removed. However, if it was cooked by itself, it is permitted to eat b'Di'eved. If it was cooked with other meat, we estimate as to whether there is sixty times the amount of Kechal in the mixture, and the entire mixture is permitted.
(c)The Poskim argue as to whether it is permitted (without tearing and squeezing) to eat the Kechal after roasting (which draws out the milk) or after salting it along with other meat (SHULCHAN ARUCH Yoreh De'ah 90:4).
3)[line 27]קבהKEIVAH- the maw or abomasum, the last of a cow's four stomachs
4)[line 30]שתי וערבSHESI VE'EREV- horizontally and vertically
5)[line 30]וטחו בכותלV'TACHO BA'KOSEL- and he squeezes it against a wall
(a)By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she immerses in a Mikvah to become Tehorah.
(b)The current practice is to consider all women who have a show of blood to be a Zavah (see Background to Menachos 89:6) and therefore they must have seven clean days before they go to the Mikvah.
7a)[line 35]דם טוהרDAM TOHAR- ritually pure blood, such as Dam Besulim (virginal blood that emerges upon the first instance of marital relations) or the Dam Tohar of a Yoledes (see next entry)
b)[line 35]דם טוהרDAM TOHAR (YOLEDES)
(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8, the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages:
1.During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is known as a "Tevulas Yom Aroch" (a "long" Tevulas Yom — see Background to Nidah 71:23b), and she is permitted to her husband and to eat Ma'aser Sheni.
2.During the second stage, any bleeding that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. This blood is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Terumah, Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b)Any bleeding that the woman experiences after the conclusion of the above two terms is the start of her regular cycle (Dam Nidah).
(c)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even if she experiences bleeding during the period of Dam Tohar — see Insights to Nidah 25a.)
8)[line 36]מוחא דשיבוטאMOCHA D'SHIBUTAH- the brain of the Shibuta (name of a fish; possibly mullet)
9)[line 37]גירותאGEIRUSA- name of an non-kosher bird, possibly the moor-hen
10)[line 37]לישנא דכוראLISHNA D'CHAVRA- fish-tongue
11)[line 40]זויקו להZEVIKU LAH- roast (on a spit) for her