[75a - 47 lines; 75b - 50 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos
 Rashi 75a DH Avira Garim אוירא גרים :
The words in parentheses "Daf 74a" דף עד. should read "Daf 74b" דף עד:
 Rashi ibid. DH Mah Chelev u'Shtei Hakelayos... מה חלב ושתי הכליות כו' :
This Dibur ha'Maschil ends with the words "Ela Lomar Lecha." אלא לומר לך. The following words "Mah Chelev u'Shtei ha'Kelayos ha'Amur b'Asham Mutza mi'Chelal Shelil," מה חלב ושתי הכליות האמור באשם מוצא מכלל שליל are a new Dibur ha'Maschil.
The words "Chelev Shelil Yakriv ha'Nimtza b'Asham" חלב שליל יקריב הנמצא באשם
should be "Chelev Shelil ha'Nimtza b'Asham Yakriv" חלב שליל הנמצא באשם יקריב
1)[line 1]שחיטה יבישתאSHECHITAH YEVESHTA- a dry Shechitah; a Shechitah from which the animal did not bleed (in which case neither the mother nor the fetus had Hechsher — see Background to Chulin 73:11)
2)[line 5]טומאת אוכליםTUM'AS OCHLIN
3)[line 15]דג מקרטעDAG MEKARTE'A- a fish jumping (in its death throes)
4)[line 23]חלבו כחלב בהמה / חלבו כחלב חיהCHELBO K'CHELEV BEHEMAH / CHELBO K'CHELEV CHAYAH (ISUR ACHILAS CHELEV)
(a)Chelev refers to the fat of an animal that is offered on the Mizbe'ach. It consists of the layer of fat covering the stomachs, all the other fat attached to the stomachs, and the fat on the kidneys along the flanks (Vayikra 3:4). The verse states, "Chukas Olam l'Doroseichem b'Chol Moshevoseichem, Kol Chelev v'Chol Dam Lo Socheilu" - "It shall be an everlasting statute for your generations throughout all your settlements, that you eat neither [forbidden] fat nor blood" (Vayikra 3:17).
(b)It is forbidden to eat the Chelev of a Kosher Behemah (farm animal), but it may be used for any other purpose. The Chelev of a Chayah (a Kosher non-farm animal), however, may even be eaten. "Shuman" refers to all the other fat of an animal that is permitted.
(c)If a person eats a k'Zayis of Chelev b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he sins b'Shogeg (unintentionally) he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid). If a person is in doubt whether the fat he ate was Chelev or Shuman, he must bring a Korban Asham Taluy (see Background to Chulin 41:25).
5)[line 43]מחוסר זמןMECHUSAR ZMAN
It is forbidden to offer an animal as a sacrifice before it is eight days old, as the verse states, "Shor O Chesev O Ez Ki Yivaled, v'Hayah Shiv'as Yamim Tachas Imo, umi'Yom ha'Shemini va'Hal'ah Yeratzeh l'Korban Isheh la'Sh-m" - "A bull or a sheep or a goat that is born: it shall be under [the care of] its mother for seven days, and on the eighth day and onward it will be acceptable as a fire-offering to HaSh-m" (Vayikra 22:27). An animal that is less than eight days old is called "Mechusar Zeman," since time must pass before it can be offered as a Korban. (See Background to Chulin 38:15.)
6)[line 46]ד' סימנין אכשר ביה רחמנאARBA'AH SIMANIN ACHSHAR BEI RACHMANA- the Torah renders [the fetus] kosher [when two out of] four Simanin [are cut: either the trachea and esophagus of the mother or the trachea and esophagus of the fetus]
7)[line 1]זרוע והלחיים והקבהZERO'A VEHA'LECHAYAYIM VEHA'KEIVAH (MATNOS KEHUNAH: ZERO'A, LECHAYAYIM V'KEIVAH)
(a)Whenever a person slaughters cattle, sheep or goats (that are not Kodesh), he must give to a Kohen the Zero'a, Lechayayim and Keivah (the foreleg, the [lower] jaw, and the maw or abomasum [the last of a cow's four stomachs] (Devarim 18:3):
1.The ZERO'A consists of the two upper sections of the right foreleg, until the shoulder blade.
2.The LECHAYAYIM consists of the lower jaw, from the joint where it is attached to the upper jaw until the thyroid cartilage, including the tongue.
3.The KEIVAH consists of the maw together with its Chelev and the curdled milk that it contains, but the Minhag of the Kohanim is to let the animal's owner keep the Chelev and the curdled milk (Chulin 134b, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #506).
(b)Although one must give the Zero'a, Lechayayim and Keivah to a Kohen, they may be eaten by a non-Kohen.
8)[line 14]יישר! וכן אמר ר' יוחנןYEYASHER! V'CHEN AMAR REBBI YOCHANAN- "You did well! Rebbi Yochanan said the same"
9)[line 14]מכלל דפליג עליה ר''ש בן לקיש?MI'CHELAL D'PALIG ALEI REBBI SHIMON BEN LAKISH?- Does this mean that Rebbi Shimon ben Lakish argues with this teaching of Rebbi Yochanan?
10a)[line 15][איכא דאמרי] משהא הוה שהי ליה ושתיק ליה[IKA D'AMREI] MISH'HEH HAVEI SHAHEI LEI V'SHASIK LEI- [there are those who quote [the incident as follows]:] he was waiting for him to finish, and was quiet (Rebbi Shimon ben Lakish, when he was about to argue with Rebbi Yochanan, waited until Rebbi Yochanan finished his entire teaching with all of his proofs (RASHI to Shevuos 40a). He then waited an additional period of time, to make certain that Rebbi Yochanan did not change his mind (RASHI here). In the incident recorded in our Gemara, Rebbi Asi had meanwhile left the Beis ha'Midrash and did not find out whether or not Rebbi Shimon ben Lakish eventually argued with Rebbi Yochanan.)
b)[line 16]ואיכא דאמרי משתא הוה שתי ושתיק ליהV'IKA D'AMREI MISHTA HAVEI SHASEI V'SHASIK LEI- and there are those who quote [the incident as follows]: he was drinking, and was quiet (Rebbi Shimon ben Lakish was drinking when Rebbi Yochanan taught the Halachah, and Rebbi Asi had meanwhile left the Beis ha'Midrash and did not find out whether or not Rebbi Shimon ben Lakish eventually argued with Rebbi Yochanan.) (RASHI to Shevuos 40a)
11)[line 18]הפריס על גבי קרקעHIFRIS AL GABEI KARKA- if it stood on its hooves upon the ground
12)[line 23]חוששין לזרע האבCHOSHESHIN L'ZERA HA'AV
(a)Chosheshin l'Zera ha'Av means that we consider the seed of father to be a contributing factor. There is an argument among the Amora'im as to whether or not the species of the father of an animal has any bearing on its Halachic status (Chulin 78b-79a). There are a number of ramifications to this argument, such as the law of Kil'ayim. If we consider the seed of father as a contributing factor, then an animal born from two distinct species is considered to be a different species from its mother and its father. The offspring may not even be crossbred with the species of its mother. Similarly, a carriage may not be drawn by the crossbred offspring together with the thoroughbred mother or father.
(b)Our Gemara discusses another ramification that applies if we consider the seed of father to be a contributing factor, namely, whether or not the offspring of a Ben Paku'ah needs Shechitah to render its meat permitted to eat. From the father's side, a male Ben Paku'ah and its offspring rely on the Shechitah of the mother of the Ben Paku'ah, and do not require Shechitah. From the mother's side (if the mother is a normal female), the offspring do require Shechitah. Rav Mesharsheya rules that the offspring in this case can never be permitted to be eaten, because of the contradictory heredity (see RASHI DH Ein).
13)[line 23]מלתא דתמיהאMILSA D'TEMIHAH- an astonishing phenomenon
14)[line 25]קלוט בן קלוטה בן פקועהKALUT BEN KELUTAH BEN PEKU'AH- an animal with closed-hooves, that was found alive in the womb of its mother, that was also an animal with closed hooves (NOTE: see Rashi DH Hachi Garsinan Ika d'Amrei, "V'OSAH KELUTAH PEKU'AH HAYESAH - and that closed-hoof animal had been torn open, Shach YD 13:7)
15)[line 31]דובאDOVA- a wolf
16)[line 43]מסוכןMESUKAN- someone who is about to die due to an illness
17)[line 43]תרומת מעשר של דמאיTERUMAS MA'ASER SHEL DEMAI (TERUMOS / MA'ASROS / DEMAI)
(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).
(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Anyone who eats Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon, redemption — see (e) below) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 2:5). Once the Ma'aser Sheni produce enters the walls of Yerushalayim, it may not be redeemed. It is considered "Niklat," "captured" by the walls.
(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.
(f)Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance; see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" — "What is this?").
(g)Yochanan Kohen Gadol decreed that Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling the produce. Terumah Gedolah, however, because of its stringency, is presumed to have been separated. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are separated from the produce, but they are eaten by the owner and not given to the Levi or the Ani (in keeping with the principle "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah").
18)[line 44]היוצא בקולרHA'YOTZEI B'KOLAR- one who is being led out [to be executed] in a collar (a [Roman] prisoner's band or chain around the neck)
19)[line 45]ואמר כתבו גט לאשתיV'AMAR KISVU GET L'ISHTI - and he said, "Write a Get for my wife" (GET)
(a)The Torah states (Devarim 24:1) that if a man wants to divorce his wife, he must write a Sefer Kerisus (lit. "a document that cuts [the bond between them]") and hand it to her ("v'Nasan b'Yadah") in front of two witnesses. In the language of Chazal, this document of divorce is called a Get (pl. Gitin).
(b)The man does not need to give the Get to the woman himself; he may appoint a Shali'ach to bring the Get and hand it to her. When the man appoints a Shali'ach to bring the Get to his wife, this is called a "Shali'ach l'Holachah." The woman, too, may appoint a "Shali'ach l'Kabalah" to receive the Get from the man, or to receive the Get from the man's Shali'ach. When her Shali'ach l'Kabalah receives the Get, the woman becomes divorced as if she had received it herself. The woman may also appoint a "Shali'ach l'Hava'ah" to receive the Get from the man and to bring it to her (in which case, she is not divorced until the Shali'ach l'Hava'ah gives her the Get).
(c)A Get must contain the full names of the couple involved in the divorce, the places where they are to be found at the time of the writing (or where they live, or where they were born, according to some), and the date and place where the Get is written. If any of these items is missing or mistaken ("Shinah Shemo u'Shemah" — Gitin 34b, Yevamos 91b), the Get is invalid.
(d)A Get must be written Lishmah (for the sake of the woman who is to be divorced), as is learned from the verse in the Torah, "v'Chasav Lah Sefer Kerisus" - "and he must write for her a bill of divorce" (Devarim 24:1). The scribe must therefore write at least: 1. the name of the wife; 2. the name of the husband; 3. the place; and 4. the words "Harei At Muteres l'Chol Adam" — "You are hereby free to [marry] whomever you wish" — with the intention that this Get will be used to divorce this specific woman (see RAMBAM Hilchos Gerushin 3:7).
(e)A man may use Shelichim to write and give a Get to his wife, as long as he instructs them, "Kisvu u'Senu Get l'Ishti," - "Write and give a Get to my wife." In certain circumstances, like the prisoner about to be executed in our Gemara, as long as the husband states, "Kisvu," the Get is valid. We rely on the fact that he meant to say "Tenu," also, but forgot to do so since he was distressed over the fact that he was about to be executed.
20)[line 46]המפרשHA'MEFARESH- one who sets out on a sea voyage
21)[line 46]היוצא בשייראHA'YOTZEI B'SHAYARA- one who embarks on a caravan journey
22)[line 49]שחזרה למקומהSHE'CHAZRAH LI'MEKOMAH - that [subsequently] fell back into its place (the Chulin from which it was separated) (MEDUMA)
(a)Terumah only becomes Batel (canceled, annulled) if one part of Terumah falls into at least one hundred parts of Chulin. Even if the Terumah is Batel, it is forbidden for non-Kohanim to eat the entire mixture; the equivalent of the amount of Terumah that fell in must first be removed.
(b)If the percentage of Terumah that fell into the Chulin was greater than one in one hundred, the mixture is known as Meduma (lit. mixed) and is forbidden to be eaten by non-Kohanim.
(c)According to TOSFOS (to Chulin 99a DH Ein), this law applies only if the Terumah was the same type of food as the Chulin; otherwise Terumah is Batel just like any other Isur.