[46a - 35 lines; 46b - 36 lines]

1)[line 3]אם תמצי לומר עד ועד בכללIM TIMZI LOMAR AD V'AD BI'CHLAL- if you decide to say that Shmuel meant until and including the first section, where a break in the spinal cord itself at the mouth of the branch renders the animal a Tereifah (for even a break in the first section renders the animal a Tereifah)

2)[line 2]פי פרשהPI PARSHAH- the mouth of the branch; i.e. the juncture of the first branch, where the two side nerves branch off from the spinal cord

3)[line 4]פרשה עצמהPARSHAH ATZMAH- a break in the nerve branch itself. If one of the nerve branches at the first branch became detached from the spinal cord, without a break occurring in the spinal cord itself, is the animal a Tereifah?

4)[line 7]עד בין אגפיםAD BEIN AGAPAYIM- the spinal cord extends until between the wings

5)[line 16]דרבי חייא זריק להD'REBBI CHIYA ZARIK LAH- that Rebbi Chiya would discard it

6)[line 17]ורבי שמעון בר רבי מטביל להV'REBBI SHIMON BAR REBBI MATBIL LAH- and Rebbi Shimon bar Rebbi would dip it in relish and eat it

7)[line 17]וסימניך עשירין מקמציןV'SIMANICH ASHIRIM MEKAMTZIN- and the mnemonic device that you may use [to remember which sage maintains that an animal is Kosher when even less than a k'Zayis of the liver remains, and which sage maintains that an animal is Kosher only when at least a k'Zayis of the liver remains,] is: "The rich are frugal," [indicating that Rebbi Shimon bar Rabbi, who was very wealthy, maintained that an animal is Kosher when even less than a k'Zayis of liver remains.]

8)[line 18]פולמוסהPULMUSA- an army battalion

9)[line 19]ערקוARKU- they fled

10)[line 20]ערוקאיARUKA'EI- refugees

11)[line 20]במקום מרהB'MEKOM MARAH- it must be located at the place of the gallbladder, where it attaches to the liver

12)[line 21]במקום שהיא חיהB'MAKOM SHE'HI CHAYAH- [we require an olive's volume] at the place from which it lives. Since there is uncertainty as to the definition of the place where it lives, we require that three k'Zeisim remain: one in the place of the gallbladder, one in the place of the kidney, and one where the liver attaches to the diaphragm.

13)[line 24]מתלקטMISLAKET- the k'Zayis of liver is distributed, and is not in one place; (a) there is half a k'Zayis in one place and half of a k'Zayis in another (RASHI); (b) both half-k'Zeisim are in the necessary location, but they are not connected to each other (RASHBA)

14)[line 24]כרצועהKI'RETZU'AH- [the k'Zayis volume of liver is shaped] like a long and thin strip

15)[line 24]כזית מרודדK'ZAYIS MERUDAD- [what if the] k'Zayis [of liver] is flattened out?

16)[line 26]נדלדלה כבד ומעורה בטרפשהNIDALDELAH KAVED U'ME'URAH B'TARPASHEHA- if the liver becomes loose but is still connected to the diaphragm

17)[line 31]קרמא תתאהKARMA TATA'AH- the inner membrane. This might mean the inner membrane together with the outer one, or it might mean the inner one alone (TOSFOS)

18)[line 32]וסימנך כיתונא דורדא דמנחא ביה ריאהV'SIMANICH KITUNA D'VARDA D'MANCHA BEI REI'AH- and the mnemonic to remember that the lower membrane is the one the Mishnah refers to is the rose-colored tunic in which the lung lies

19)[line 35]ריאה דאגלידREI'AH D'IGLID- a lung that was peeled


20)[line 1]כאהינא סומקאK'AHINA SUMKA- [and now appears] like a red date

21)[line 5]האי ריאה דאוושאHAI REI'AH D'AVSHA- this lung that makes a hissing noise [when inflated, as if air is escaping]

22)[line 6]גדפהGADFA- (O.F. plume) feather

23)[line 6]רוקאROKA- spit

24)[line 6]גילאGILA- straw

25)[line 7]מבצבצאMEVATZBETZA- if it flutters; i.e. if the feather or straw flutters or the spit bubbles, it is a Tereifah

26)[line 8]מתיכלתא דמיא פשוריMESICHLASA D'MAYA FESHUREI- he puts the lungs in a basin of lukewarm water

27)[line 9]ומותבינין לה בגוהU'MOSVININ LAH B'GAVAH- and place the entire lung in it

28)[line 9]דכווציD'KAVTZEI- [the hot water] would constrict it (the lung)

29)[line 10]דמטרשיD'METARSHEI- that it would make the outer membrane hard, which could tear

30)[line 11]ונפחינא להV'NAFCHINA LAH- and we inflate it (the lung)

31)[line 13]זיקא דביני ביני הואZIKA D'VEINEI VEINI HU- and that which it makes a hissing noise is the result of air rushing into the space between the two membranes

32)[line 16]שהאדימהSHE'HE'EDIMAH- (O.F. sancterude) ecchymosed, having ecchymosis (a spot that is produced by blood forced out of its vessel and retained in the flesh (a black-and-blue mark))


(a)A Sheretz (a crawling pest, see Vayikra 11:29-38), even if it or a part of it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean), is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Chagigah 11a). It makes a person or object Tamei through Maga (contact), whether the Sheretz was touched willingly or unwillingly. The person who becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah of the Beis Ha'Mikdash. However, he can immediately immerse in a Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah.

(b)HaSh-m showed Moshe all Sheratzim, so that he could distinguish between the Tehorim and the Teme'im. The eight Sheratzim that are Teme'im that are mentioned in the Torah are (based on Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan's "The Living Torah" and other sources):

1.CHOLED - weasel [alt., a martin or an ermine (ARUCH), a rat (TARGUM, TOSFOS YOM TOV), mole or mole-rat (ARUCH), or field mouse (TARGUM YONASAN)]. According to the Gemara, it is a predatory animal that bores under the ground and undermines houses.

2.ACHBAR - mouse; some sources appear to include also the rat

3.TZAV - toad (RASHI Vayikra 11:29, Nidah 56a; this is also evident from the Mishnah in Taharos 5:1 which implies that it is similar in appearance to a frog - see Rishonim there). Alternatively, tortoise (ME'AM LOEZ, TIFERES YISRAEL to Taharos ibid.). According to the Septuagint it is the land crocodile (perhaps the monitor, see KO'ACH; a Talmudic source (Chulin 127a) indeed associates it with the salamander and snake). Others identify it with the ferret.

4.ANAKAH - hedgehog; alt., beaver (RADAK). [The Septuagint translates it as a mole, shrew mouse or field mouse.] Rabeinu Sa'adya Gaon translates it as a gecko, which is up to five inches long with a soft speckled hide; "Anachah" denotes groaning and the gecko makes a groaning sound.

5.KO'ACH - a lizard (RADAK quoting RASHI) [chameleon, according to the Septuagint.] From the translation of others it would appear to be the monitor or monitor lizard, the largest reptile in the Holy Land, growing as long as four feet. Living on the coast, the Negev, and Aravah, it eats rodents and reptiles (RADAK, RABEINU SA'ADYA GAON).

6.LETA'AH - lizard; alt., the white lizard, or the great gecko.

7.CHOMET - snail (RASHI) [alt., a lizard or the skink, a lizard with small legs of which there are four varieties in the Holy Land]

8.TINSHEMES - mole (Rashi Chulin 63a) [alt., a large-headed lizard that burrows underground, probably a type of gecko]

34)[line 20]נצרר הדםNITZRAR HA'DAM- if the blood forms a black-and-blue mark

35)[line 24]כדי שתפרך בצפורןKEDEI SHE'TIPARECH B'TZIPOREN- [it is a Tereifah] if it is so dry that it crumbles when pressed by a fingernail

36)[line 25]איזו היא יבשה?EIZO HI YEVESHAH? - what is considered dried up with regard to the ear of a Bechor? (BECHOR)

(a)The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every firstborn male of an ox, goat or sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.

(b)If the animal has no Mum (blemish), the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Pesachim 43:15a and 95:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, its meat is eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night by Kohanim, their wives, children and slaves.

(c)If the animal has a Mum, it must be slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen can give it away or sell it, even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner.

(d)Whether or not it has a Mum, it is forbidden to work with a Bechor or to shear it. Any fleece that is removed from a Bechor, even if it came off on its own, is Asur b'Hana'ah. If, upon Shechitah, the animal is found to be a Tereifah, it is Asur b'Hana'ah and must be buried.

(e)Now that there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393, #445).

37)[line 30]דקא שליט ביה זיקאD'KA SHALIT BEI ZIKA- the ear of the Bechor is exposed to the wind

38)[line 31]דלא קא שליט ביה אויראD'LO KA SHALIT BEI AVIRA- the lung which is inside the body and not exposed to the wind

39)[line 32]גילדי גילדיGILDEI GILDEI- the lung has colored crusts

40)[line 32]אוכמי אוכמיUCHMEI UCHMEI- (O.F. tajes) speckles

41)[line 32]חזותא חזותאCHASUSA CHAZUSA- various colors

42)[line 33]אין מקיפין בבועיEIN MEKIFIN B'VU'EI- if a punctured blister is found in the lung, we do not compare it to a fresh blister (to determine whether it was there from before the slaughter)

43)[line 34]הני תרתי אוני דסריכין להדדיHANEI TARTEI UNEI DI'SERICHAN LA'HADADEI- a case of two lobes of the lung that are found to adhere to each other

44)[line 36]היינו רביתייהוHAINU REVISAIHU- this is the way they grow