[43a - 44 lines; 43b - 48 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos
 Gemara 43a [line 37]:
The word "Ravach Gamda Lei רווח גמדא ליה
should be "Gamda Lei" גמדא ליה (ARUCH — see Dikdukei Sofrim #40)
1a)[line 3]קרועהKERU'AH- torn
b)[line 4]נפולהNEFULAH- that fell [from a height of at least ten Tefachim] (see Background to Chulin 42:3:b:6)
c)[line 4]שבורהSHEVURAH- shattered, smashed (this includes Ne'ekrah Tzela mi'Ikarah and Gulgoles she'Nechbesah — see Background to Chulin 42:3:b:16, 17)
2)[line 6]מרהMARAH- the Siman Tereifah of a pierced gallbladder (see Background to Chulin 42:3:b:1:f)
3)[line 7]ניקבה הקיבהNIKVAH HA'KEIVAH- the abomasum, the fourth stomach of ruminants, was pierced (see Background to Chulin 42:3:b:1:e)
4)[line 7]ניקבו הדקיםNIKVU HA'DAKIM- the small intestines were pierced (see Background to Chulin 42:3:b:1:g)
5)[line 9]הלכות חבר כזית מרה וקורקבן סימןHALACHOS CHAVER K'ZAYIS MARAH V'KURKEVAN SIMAN- this is a mnemonic device that stands for a word from the five Halachos that Rebbi Yitzchak b'Rebbi Yosef cited in the name of Rebbi Yochanan, as follows:
1.Halachos refers to "Halachah k'Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah (with regard to the Siman Tereifah of Nekuvas ha'Marah)" (line 11) (The word "Halachos" is plural since it serves a double purpose; the Siman refers to five Halachos and the first quote begins with the word "Halachah" — YT)
2.Chaver refers to "Mai Ahadru Lei Chavrei l'Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah..." (line 12)
3.k'Zayis refers to "Halachah k'Divrei ha'Omer k'Zayis" (line 19)
4.Marah refers to "Marah she'Nikvah v'Chaved Sotamtah Kesheirah" (line 25)
5.v'Kurkevan refers to "Nikev ha'Kurkevan v'Kis she'Lo Kayam Kasher" (line 27)
6)[line 13]"... ישפוך לארץ מררתי""... YISHPOCH LA'ARETZ MERERASI"- "... He has poured my gallbladder to the ground" (Iyov 16:13).
7)[line 16]"... יפלח כליותי ולא יחמול...""... YIFALACH KILYOSAI V'LO YACHMOL..."- "... He has split open my kidneys and has shown no mercy..." (Iyov 16:13) - This is included in the Tereifah known as "Lekusah," diseased kidneys (see Background to Chulin 42:3:b:14).
8)[line 17]"[ויאמר ה' אל הסטן, 'הנו בידך,] (רק) [אך] את נפשו שמור'""[VA'YOMER HASH-M EL HA'SATAN, 'HINO B'YADECHA,] (RAK) [ACH] ES NAFSHO SHEMOR" - "[And HaSh-m said to the Satan, 'Behold he (Iyov) is in your hands,] but just guard his soul (i.e. do not kill him)" (Iyov 2:6) (IYOV)
(a)Iyov, who — according to some opinions — was the firstborn of Avraham's brother Nachor, was a righteous and upright man who feared HaSh-m. He had seven sons and three daughters and was exceptionally wealthy, the owner of 7,000 sheep, 3,000 camels, 500 oxen and 500 donkeys, in addition to numerous properties. He firmly believed in HaSh-m, and was renowned for his numerous charitable acts.
(b)One day, the Satan, in response to HaSh-m's extolling of Iyov's virtues, replied that he had yet to find anyone that compared to Avraham. He challenged HaSh-m to test Iyov financially and to see whether he would remain the same Tzadik or whether he would curse HaSh-m (Chas v'Shalom) in his misery.
(c)Permission was granted, on condition that the Satan would not harm as much as a hair on Iyov's head. With the Divine go-ahead, the Satan went to work. Iyov's sons and daughters were eating with his firstborn (whose turn it was to host his siblings) when word came to Iyov that a group of bandits arrived from Sheba, took all of his oxen and asses, and killed all of the servants who were tending to them, and that the man who brought the bad news was the sole survivor of the onslaught.
(d)The messenger had barely finished relating the above events, when another servant arrived with news of a fire that fell from heaven and burned all of his sheep and the servants who were looking after them, and that he alone survived to tell. He was still speaking when a third messenger arrived with the tragic news that the Kasdim (the Babylonians) had initiated a three-pronged attack on his herd of camels, and had captured them all, killing by the sword all the servants who had been guarding them, and that he alone had escaped.
(e)Iyov had not yet absorbed this last piece of information when a fourth servant appeared informing him that his sons and daughters had been feasting in the home of his firstborn son, when a storm wind struck the house and it fell upon the feasters, killing them all, and that he was the sole survivor. Thus ended the first phase of Iyov's test. The verses attest to Iyov's righteousness and steadfast faith in HaSh-m.
(f)HaSh-m then said to the Satan, "Have you taken note of My servant Iyov, for there is nobody in the land like him, a wholesome and upright man, who fears HaSh-m and shuns evil, and [in spite of what he has already suffered] he still maintains his wholesomeness. Yet you incite Me against him for no reason?" The Satan retorted, however, that all of Iyov's current suffering was external. If one were to strike his body, Iyov certainly would react negatively and curse HaSh-m.
(g)HaSh-m granted the Satan permission to do as he saw fit, provided that he did not take Iyov's life (a daunting challenge, as Chazal, citing the Satan himself, explain). The Satan struck Iyov with a terrible plague of boils that covered him from head to foot. Iyov, despite his wife's protestations, refused to implicate HaSh-m with his lips (but in his heart — that was a different matter).
9)[line 19]הלכה כדברי האומר כזיתHALACHAH K'DIVREI HA'OMER K'ZAYIS - the Halachah follows the opinion that the animal is not a Tereifah only if a k'Zayis of the liver remains (NITAL HA'KAVED)
When the liver is completely removed with none of it remaining, the animal is a Tereifah (Mishnah Daf 42a). If a k'Zayis remains, the animal is Kesheirah, since the liver is able to regenerate (Mishnah 54a; see Chulin Illuminated by Rabbi Yaakov Dovid Lach, Hamesivta Publications, 5764, p. 160). The Tana'im and Amora'im argue (Daf 46a) as to the status of the animal if less than a k'Zayis of the liver remains.
10)[line 21]הלכה כסתם משנהHALACHAH K'STAM MISHNAH- Rebbi Yochanan rules that the Halachah follows the opinion in a Mishnah that is recorded anonymously ("Stam," from the word "Sasam" - "to conceal")
11)[line 23]אמוראי נינהו ואליבא דר' יוחנןAMORA'EI NINHU V'ALIBA D'REBBI YOCHANAN- the Amora'im disagree about the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan
12)[line 25]מרה שניקבה וכבד סותמתהMARAH SHE'NIKVAH V'CHAVED SOTAMTAH- the gallbladder was pierced and the liver closes up the hole (allowing the gallbladder to function normally)
13a)[line 27]ניקב הקורקבןNIKEV HA'KURKEVAN- the gizzard (the second stomach of a bird; ventriculus) is pierced
b)[line 27]וכיס שלו קייםV'CHIS SHELO KAYAM- but its pocket is intact (the gizzard is composed of an outer muscular part and an inner yellow membrane known as the Kis)
14)[line 32]דאי חליף טרפהD'IY CHALIF- such that if they are switched (a condition in which the outer and inner membranes of the esophagus are switched at any place on this organ)
15a)[line 36]וושט דאכלה ביהVESHET D'ACHLAH VEI- the esophagus, with which it eats
b)[line 36]ופעיא ביהU'FAYA VEI- it becomes stretched because of its proximity to the trachea when the bird (a) crows or clucks (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) breathes (RASHI, 2nd explanation)
c)[line 37]רווחRAVACH- see Girsa Section
d)[line 37]גמדא ליהGAMDA LEI- (O.F. retrait - contracts or contracted) it contracts it
e)[line 37]ופשטה ליהU'PASHTAH LEI- and it stretches it
16)[line 37]זמנין דמיהנדזין בהדי הדדיZIMNIN D'MIHANDEZIN BAHADEI HADADEI- it happens that they (the two holes) coincide with each other
17)[line 42]קרום שעלה מחמת מכהKERUM SHE'ALAH MACHMAS MAKAH- a scab that forms due to a wound
18)[line 1]ספק דרוסהSAFEK DERUSAH- an animal about which there is a doubt if it was clawed by a preying animal or bird (see Daf 53b)
19)[line 3]מאבראיME'AVRAI- from the outside (only)
20)[line 5]ואישתכח עליה תרי קורטי דמא וטרפהV'ISHTAKACH ALEI TREI KURTEI DAMA V'TARFAH- he found on it (the inner, white membrane) two drops of blood and he declared it a Tereifah
21)[line 6]לחדודי לאביי הוא דבעיL'CHADUDEI L'ABAYEI HU D'VA'I- he only did it to sharpen Abaye's scholarship (so that he would ask)
22)[line 7]ישב לו קוץ בוושטYASHAV LO KOTZ BA'VESHET- a thorn was [found] stuck in the esophagus
23)[line 7]אין חוששין שמא הבריאEIN CHOSHESHIN SHEMA HIVRI- we do not worry lest (a) it was punctured (RASHI, 2nd explanation); (b) it was a puncture that healed (RASHI, 1st explanation); (c) it punctured the esophagus through to the outside of that organ (ARUCH)
24)[line 8]דרס חתיכות בסכין טמאה סימןDARAS CHATICHOS B'SAKIN TEMEI'AH SIMAN- this is a mnemonic device that stands for a word from the four questions that the Gemara asks to refute Ula's Halachah, as follows:
1.Daras refers to "Mai Shena mi'Safek Derusah" (line 9)
2.Chatichos refers to "u'Mai Shena mi'Shenei Chatichos..." (line 10)
3.b'Sakin refers to "u'Mai Shena meha'Shochet b'Sakin v'Nimtza Pegumah" (line 12)
4.Temei'ah refers to "u'Mai Shena mi'Safek Tum'ah bi'Reshus ha'Yachid..." (line 14)
25)[line 11]משתי חתיכות אחת של חלב ואחת של שומןMI'SHTEI CHATICHOS ACHAS SHEL CHELEV V'ACHAS SHEL SHUMAN (ASHAM TALUY)
26)[line 12]התם איתחזק איסוראHASAM ISCHAZEK ISURA- in that case there was a definite Isur (there was definitely a prohibited piece of fat)
27)[line 13]איתייליד לה ריעותא בסכיןISYALID LAH RE'USA B'SAKIN- in that case a defect was found in the knife after the Shechitah (RASHI)
28)[line 14]מספק טומאה ברשות היחידMI'SAFEK TUM'AH BI'RESHUS HA'YACHID / SAFEK TUM'AH BI'RESHUS HA'RABIM
(a)When there is a doubt as to whether an object is Tahor or Tamei, if the object is found in Reshus ha'Rabim the object is Tahor. If it is found in a private, concealed place, it is judged to be Tamei. During the winter a Bik'ah is a Reshus ha'Yachid and Sefeiko Tamei. During the summer it is a Reshus ha'Rabim and Sefeiko Tahor.
(b)This is learned from the case of the Sotah woman. In the case of a Sotah, where only two people were present at the time that there arose a question as to her status, she is judged Temei'ah/culpable and is prohibited to her husband. Similarly, whenever there are only two people present (i.e. a Reshus ha'Yachid l'Tum'ah), if a doubt arises regarding the status of a person or an object, he or it is judged to be Tamei. Whenever more than two people frequent a certain area, it is a Reshus ha'Rabim l'Tum'ah. If a doubt arises regarding the status of a person or an object, he or it is judged to be Tahor.
29)[line 17]הלכתא גמירי לה מסוטהHILCHESA GEMIREI LAH MI'SOTAH- we know this Halachah from the tradition that Moshe received on Mount Sinai ("Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai") with regard to the Sotah woman (see Background to Chulin 9:25)
30)[line 19]נמצאת אתמרNIMTZEIS ITMAR- the Halachah of Ula was stated in a case where a thorn was only found in the esophagus; it was not stuck into it
31)[line 20]לא תציתו ליהLO TATZISU LEI- do not listen to him
32)[line 21]דכולהו חיוי ברייתא קוצי אכלןD'KULHU CHEIVEI BARYASA KOTZEI ACHLAN- thorns are eaten by all of the animals that (a) graze outside of settlements (RASHI); (b) are healthy (RASHI to Daf 47a)
33)[line 22]תורבץ הוושטTURBATZ HA'VESHET- the entrance of the esophagus
34a)[line 27]כל שחותכו ומרחיבKOL SHE'CHOSCHO U'MARCHIV- the part that, when severed, will widen (this occurs at the part of the Turbatz ha'Veshet that is closest to the animal's mouth)
b)[line 28]חותכו ועומד במקומוCHOSCHO V'OMED BI'MEKOMO- (O.F. reides - hard) the part that, when severed, stays in its place (it neither folds upon itself nor widens)
c)[line 32]כל שחותכו וכויץKOL SHE'CHOSCHO V'CHAVITZ- (O.F. retrait - contracts or contracted) the part that, when severed, folds upon itself
35)[line 32]יונה אמר זיראYONAH AMAR ZEIRA- (a) Yonah (the name of a sage) said in the name of Zeira (another sage) (RASHI); (b) with regard to a dove, Zeira said [the following Halachah with regard to Turbatz ha'Veshet] (BEIS YOSEF YD 20)
36)[line 33]מבלעתאMAVLATA- the throat
37)[line 33]וכמה?V'CHAMAH?- and how much, i.e. how large is this area?
38)[line 34]תוראTORA- a bull
39)[line 45]מותבינא תיובתא כלפי סנאיה דרבאMOSVINA TIYUVTA KELAPEI SAN'EI D'RAVA- I will ask a question of the enemies of Rava (a euphemism for Rava himself, since Mar brei d'Ravina intended to apply the verse "veha'Kesil ba'Choshech Holech" to the ruling of Rava)