POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
1) WHAT BOUNDARIES COMBINE ANIMALS FOR MA'ASAR BEHEMAH (cont.)
(a) Question (against Rav - Beraisa): If five animals were born (in Reuven's flock) in Kefar Chananyah, and five (32 Mil away) in Kefar Osnai, they do not join unless he has one (in the middle) in Tzipori.
(b) Answer (Shmuel, on behalf of Rav): The Seifa does not refer to the Reisha (when there were only five on each side), rather, if there were nine on each side. Then, one in the middle joins with those on either side to make 10.
(c) (Rav Papa): According to Shmuel, even if there are no animals in the middle, the shepherd joins them if his residence is in the middle, or his Kelim. (Surely, he will go to retrieve them).
(d) Question (Rav Ashi): If the shepherd's dog is in the middle, does this join them?
1. Since he can call to the dog, he need not go there, so they do not join;
2. Or, since sometimes the dog does not come and he must go there, they do join!
(e) This question is not resolved.
2) THE YARDEN SEPARATES
(a) (Mishnah - R. Meir): The Yarden separates regarding Ma'aser Behemah.
(b) (R. Ami): This is only if there is no bridge there. If there is a bridge, they join.
(c) Inference: It separates because neither the animals nor the shepherd can get to those on the other side.
(d) Question (Beraisa): If Reuven had 10 animals (in all) on the two sides of the Yarden (some on each side), or in two provinces (in one kingdom), even if they are close to each other, they do not join. There is no need to say that animals in Eretz Yisrael and Chutz la'Aretz do not join.
1. Animals in Eretz Yisrael and Chutz la'Aretz resemble the case of a bridge (they can come to each other), yet they do not join!
(e) (R. Chiya bar Aba): Rather, R. Meir learns from "veha'Yarden Yigbol Oso li'F'as Kedmah" that the Yarden is a boundary (for Ma'aser Behemah).
(f) Question: If so, every border between Shevatim should be a boundary. It says "v'Sa'ar ha'Gevul" and "v'Alah ha'Gevul"!
(g) Answer: The Torah considers all of Eretz Yisrael to be one boundary - "Zos Tihyeh Lachem ha'Aretz li'Gvuloseha Soviv".
(h) Question: If so, also the Yarden should not be a boundary!
(i) Answer: "Ha'Aretz" is all one boundary. This does not include the Yarden.
(j) Question: According to R. Chiya, we understand why the Beraisa mentions the Yarden. (It is the only separation in Eretz Yisrael);
1. However, according to R. Ami, why does the Beraisa mention the Yarden? (Every river separates!)
(k) This is left difficult.
(l) Tana'im argue about whether the Yarden is considered part of Eretz Yisrael;
1. (Beraisa - R. Yehudah ben Beseira): "Ki Atem Ovrim Es ha'Yarden Artzah Kena'an" - the land is considered Eretz Kena'an, but the Yarden is not.
2. R. Shimon says, "me'Ever l'Yarden Yerecho Kedmah Mizrachah" teaches that just like Yericho is part of Eretz Kena'an, also the Yarden.
(m) (Rabah bar bar Chanah): Only the part of the Yarden below (downstream, south of) Yericho is considered the Yarden.
(n) Question: Concerning what law was this said?
1. It is not concerning vows (e.g. not to drink from the Yarden), for vows are based on the way people speak. Also above Yericho is called the Yarden!
(o) Answer: It was said regarding Ma'aser Behemah.
(p) Support (Beraisa): The Yarden emanates from (a spring in) the Pamyas cave. It passes through the seas of Sivki and Tiveryah, and Sedom (Dead Sea), and falls into the Yam ha'Gadol;
1. Only the part below Yericho is considered the Yarden.
2. (R. Chiya bar Aba): It is called Yarden because it is Yored mi'Dan (descends from a place called Dan).
(q) R. Aba (to Rav Ashi): We learn from a different source than you (that it comes from Dan).
1. (R. Yitzchak): "Va'Yikre'u Lo l'Leshem Dan" is Pamyas.
2. (Beraisa): The Yarden emanates from the Pamyas.
(r) (Rav Kahana): The primary source of the Yarden is the Pamyas;
1. If one vowed not to drink from the Pamyas cave, he may not drink from any part of the Yarden.
(s) The primary source of blood is the liver;
1. (R. Yitzchak): If a liver (of a Mes) dissolved, a Revi'is of it has Tumas Ohel (just like blood).
3) ALL WATER COMES FROM THE PRAS RIVER
(a) The primary source of water is the Pras (Euphrates) River;
1. (Rav Yehudah): If one vowed from water of the Pras, he may not drink any water.
2. Question: What is the case?'
i. If he vowed not to drink water of the Pras, he only intended to forbid what is called Pras, not other rivers!
3. Answer: He vowed not to drink water that comes from the Pras.
i. (Rav Yehudah): All rivers are below (and come from) three rivers (of the four in Gan Eden). The three are below the (fourth, the) Pras.
ii. Question: There are springs on mountains that are higher!
iii. Answer (Rav Mesharshiya): They originate in the Pras, the water goes up 'ladders' in the ground.
iv. Question: "Veha'Nahar ha'Revi'i Hu Feras" (shows that it is not considered more important than the others!)
v. Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): It is the river mentioned at the beginning (from which all four rivers emanate).
(b) (Beraisa - R. Meir): The real name of Pras is Yuval - "v'Hayah k'Etz Shasul Al Mayim v'Al Yuval Yeshalach Sharashav";
1. It is called Pras because its waters increase (even without rain).
(c) This supports Shmuel, and is unlike Rav.
1. (Shmuel): A river's water is mostly from its Kipah (source; R. Gershom - banks.)
2. (Rav): When the Pras is fuller than usual, this shows that there was much rain in Eretz Yisrael (Rashi - from where it flows).
(d) Shmuel's father made Mikva'os for his daughters in springtime, and put mats (on the river floor) for them in fall.
(e) He made Mikva'os in springtime, because he holds like Rav, who attributes the extra water to Notfim (rain, or melting snow). He was concerned lest the river is mostly Notfim, and it is considered rainwater.
1. Version #1 (Rashi): Nowadays, any woman who sees blood is considered a Safek Zavah. She must immerse in Mayim Chayim (flowing water), i.e. the majority must be Zochlim (what comes from the source. Chasam Sofer (Y.D. 202) - Rashi agrees with most Meforshim, that mid'Oraisa, a Zavah does not need Mayim Chayim. He was stringent for his unmarried daughters, who immersed for Taharos (but not for his wife, who immersed primarily for relations), lest a Zav (who needs Mayim Chayim) likewise immerse there.)
2. Version #2 (Rashi): Even though water that flows from the ground to the river is called Zochlim, perhaps the river is mostly Notfim (rain that fell directly into the river).
3. Version #3 (Tosfos): Rainwater is Metaher only if it is gathered, but not if it is flowing. (Only Zochlim are Metaher when flowing, i.e. in a spring.)
4. Version #4 (Ran Nedarim 40b): He was concerned lest they immerse in an area where the river normally does not reach, and only now it (is wider and) reaches there due to the rainwater.
(f) He put mats for them in fall, lest their feet be in mud, and it will be a Chatzitzah.
(g) Version #1 (our text): Shmuel contradicts what he said above (that a river's water is mostly from its Kipah):
(h) Version #2 (brought in Rashi): Shmuel argues with his father (who did not make Mikva'os until Nisan); (end of Version #2)
1. (Shmuel): The only water that is Metaher b'Zochlim is the Pras in Tishrei. (At all other times, we are concerned lest the majority is rainwater.)