1) THOSE WHO INHERIT AND THOSE WHO BEQUEATH (Yerushalmi Halachah 1 Daf 21b)

משנה יש נוחלין ומנחילין נוחלין ולא מנחילין מנחילין ולא נוחלין לא נוחלין ולא מנחילין

(a) (Mishnah): Some (pairs of) relatives inherit from and bequeath to each other. In some cases, one relative inherits the other, but does not bequeath to the other. In some cases, one bequeaths to the other, but does not inherit from the other. Some relatives do not inherit or bequeath to each other.

אילו נוחלין ומנחילין האב את הבנים והבנים את האב ואחין מן האב נוחין ומנחילין

1. The following relatives inherit from and bequeath to each other - a father and his sons (he inherits them, and bequeaths to them); sons and their father; paternal brothers.

האיש את אמו והאיש את אשתו ובני אחיות נוחלין ולא מנחילין

2. The following inherit but do not bequeath - a man from his mother, a man from his wife, and sons of sisters (a man inherits his mother's sister).

האשה את בנה והאשה את בעלה ואחי האם מנחילין ולא נוחלין

3. The following bequeath but do not inherit - a woman to her sons, a woman to her husband, and a man to his sister's children.

והאחין מן האם לא נוחלין ולא מנחילין

4. Maternal brothers (from different fathers) neither inherit nor bequeath to each other.

סדר נחלות כך הוא איש כי ימות ובן אין לו והעברתם את נחלתו לבתו

(b) The order of inheritance is - the pasuk states (Bamidbar 27:8), "If a man will die and he does not have a son, you will transfer his inheritance to his daughter".

הבן קודם לבת וכל יוצאי יריכו של בן קודם לבת

1. A son precedes a daughter, and all the descendants of a son precede a daughter;

הבת קודמת לאחין וכל יוצאין יריכה של בת קודמין לאחין

2. A daughter precedes the brother of the deceased, and all her descendants precede a brother;

האחין קודמין לאחי האב כל יוצאי יריכן של אחין קודמין לאחי האב

3. A brother precedes the brothers of the father, and all his descendants precede the father's brothers.

זה הכלל כל הקודם בנחלה יוצאי יריכו קודמין והאב קודם לכל יוצאי יריכו

(c) The general rule is, whoever has precedence to inherit, all his descendants have precedence.

גמרא כתיב איש כי ימות ובן אין לו והעברתם את נחלתו לבתו.

(d) (Gemara): It's written, "If a person will die without a son, and you will transfer his inheritance to his daughter."

תני ר' ישמעאל שינה הכתוב נחלה זאת מכל נחלות שבתורה שבכולן כתוב ונתתם וכאן כתוב והעברתם. עיבור הדין הוא שתהא הבת יורשת.

(e) Beraisa (R. Yishmael): The pasuk changed this inheritance from other inheritances in the Torah - in all inheritances, it states "and you will give" and here it states "and you will transfer". It is a transferal of the law for a daughter to inherit.

חכמי העכו"ם אומרים בן ובת שוין כאחת דאינון דריש ובן אין לו האם אם יש לו שניהן שוין

(f) The wise men of the gentiles say that both sons and daughters receive an equal inheritance. They interpret the words of the pasuk (Bamidbar 27:8), "if he has no son" (then the daughter is the sole inheritor), but if there is a son and a daughter, they both inherit equally.

התיבון והכתיב ואם אין לו בת הא אם יש לו שניהן שוין ואתון מודין דליתי בר אף הכא ליתי בר.

(g) Question: The Chachamim asked them - but the (next) pasuk (27:9) states, "and if he has no daughter (and you shall give them to his brothers)" - but according to you, if he does, they both inherit equally. But even you agree that the pasuk is teaching that when the daughter died during the life of the one who died, the brothers inherit him, but if she was alive, they do not inherit at all. Here also, only if the son died during the life of the one who died does she inherit, but if the son was still alive, she does not inherit at all?!

הצדוקין אומרים בת הבת והבת שניהן שוין דאינון דרשי מה בת בנו הבאה מכח בני יורשתני בתי הבאה מכוחי אינו דין שתירשני.

(h) The Tzidukim (Sadducees): If the one who died has grandchildren from the son, they inherit him; but if he only has granddaughters, the daughter and the son's daughter, both receive equally. If my son's daughter inherits me if my son dies, my own daughter should certainly inherit me if my son should die!

אמרו להן לא אם אמרתם בבת הבן שאינה באה אלא מכח האחים תאמרו בבת שאינה באה אלא מכח הזקן.

(i) Chachamim: (When you compare the daughter with the son's daughter) in the case of the son's daughter, her claim is because of the power of the brothers (as it is coming from her father, who was one of the brothers who were the children of the deceased man); but in the case of a daughter, she is coming from the power of the old man (and she has no rights when she has brothers).

2) A SON OR A DAUGHTER INHERIT THEIR MOTHER (Yerushalmi Halachah 1 Daf 22a)

תלמוד לומר וכל בת יורשת נחלה ממטות וגו' וכי היאך איפשר לבת לירש שני מטות

(a) Question: (The Mishnah taught that a son inherits his mother. What is the source for this?) The pasuk states (Bamidbar 36:8), "And any daughter who inherits from tribes" (written in plural, which could mean two). Does a daughter (or a son) ever inherit from two tribes?

אלא תיפתר אביה משבט זה ואמה משבט אחר.

(b) Answer: If her father came from one tribe and her mother came from another (she inherits both of them). (The Gemara will later return to this, because the original question that asked for the source that a son inherits his mother has not been answered.)

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