1) WHEN DID WINE BECOME VINEGAR? (Yerushalmi Halachah 1 Daf 19a)

רבי חייה בר ווה שאל בא בסוף שבוע ומצאו חומץ ברור או מיכן ולהבא

(a) Question #1 (R. Chiya bar Vava): If he came at the end of day 40 and found the wine to be vinegar - was it assumed to be vinegar retroactively?

ר' יצחק שאל עבר הפרק בסוף ארבעים יום כוחו של פרק ביטל כח של ארבעים יום או כח ארבעים יום ביטל כוחו של פרק.

(b) Question #2 (R. Yitzchak): (According to R. Yehudah in Maseches Gitin they would check the wine at three times during the year to see if it had become vinegar.) If 40 days had passed and he had not checked the wine, although the next time to check had not yet arrived, can we assume that the wine has not become vinegar since the next time to check had not yet arrived?

ר' קריספה שאל בכל שנה בודק או אחת לשלשה שנים

(c) Question #3 (R. Krispa): (Concerning the three times in the year that the wine is checked) is this done every year or once in 3 years?

נישמעינה מהדא המוכר יין לשנה חייב באחריותו עד החג.

(d) Answer to question #3 (Beraisa): If a person sold wine for a year (meaning that he is guaranteeing that it will not spoil for the next year), he is responsible for it until Succos. (After Succos, he is not responsible to replace it if it soured, since it is normal for the eastern wind to sour the wine. This implies that the wine should be checked every year.)

א"ר יודן תיפתר כגון אילין גלילאי דלא קטפין כרמיהון אלא בתר חגא ולית שמע מינה כלום.

(e) Rebuttal (R. Yudan): It could be referring to the Galileans who only harvest (and subsequently sell the wine of) their vineyards after Succos. (Therefore, there is no proof from here, as they accept responsibility for less than a year - until the following Succos.)

ויידא אמרה דא

(f) Question: What is the proof that there is a requirement to check it every year?

ישן משל אשתקד מיושן של שלשה שנים נימר משם הדא מטמועיתה.

(g) Answer: (Our Mishnah taught (see dapim 90-92 1) (j)) that "if he sold him 'yashan' wine, he can give him the previous year's wine. If he sold him 'meyushan' wine, he must give him wine from three years earlier." The reason that it must be three years old is that since he tasted it three times and it did not sour, we are no longer concerned that it might sour. This proves that it must be checked every year, in order to establish that it is not souring.

מה חבית אחת הוא בודק כולהון תלויות בה כל אחת וא' הוא בודק ואין מחמיצות.

(h) Question: (When he has a number of barrels) is it enough to check one barrel? But just because that barrel did not sour, does that prove that no others soured? But if he opens all of them, they can sour from them being opened!

א"ר שמי אית בני נש מקשין על גרבא מדלעיל וידעין מה דאית ביה מלגיו:

(i) Answer (R. Shami): Some people are able to check if a barrel has soured merely by knocking on it.