1)EXPORTING PEROS OF ERETZ YISRAEL
(a)(Beraisa): We may not export life-essential Peros of Eretz Yisrael such as wine, oil and flour;
(b)R. Yehudah ben Beseira permits exporting wine. This reduces (drunkenness and) immorality.
(c)Just like we may not export to Chutz la'Aretz, we may not export to Surya;
(d)Rebbi permits exporting from a town of Eretz Yisrael to a nearby town of Surya.
(e)(Beraisa): We may not deal (buy in order to resell at a profit) in life-essential Peros of Eretz Yisrael such as wine, oil and flour;
1.R. Elazar ben Azaryah used to deal in wine and oil.
2.Regarding wine, he holds like R. Yehudah ben Beseira;
3.Oil was plentiful in his area (so it was permitted to deal in it).
(f)(Beraisa): One may not make a double profit on eggs.
(g)(Mari bar Mari): Rav and Shmuel argue about this:
1.One explains that one may not buy and resell them (Tosfos - one may not sell even his own eggs) for double the price;
2.The other explains that one may not buy and resell them to a second dealer. (Rather, he must sell them for consumption.)
(h)(Beraisa): We are Masri'a (Rashbam - cry out in prayer; Tur - blow the Shofar) due to a drop in prices of merchandise, even on Shabbos.
(i)(R. Yochanan): Examples of this are a drop in prices of linen garments in Bavel, or wine and oil in Eretz Yisrael.
(j)(Rav Yosef): This is if what normally sells for 10 now sells for six.
(k)(Beraisa): One may not leave Eretz Yisrael (due to inflated prices) until wheat sells for Sa'atayim for a Sela;
(l)R. Shimon says, this is when he cannot afford to buy. If he can afford, even if it sells for a Se'ah for a Sela, he may not leave.
1.R. Shimon: Elimelech, Machlon and Chilyon were the leaders of their generation and the philanthropists of their generation. They were punished for leaving Eretz Yisrael - "va'Tehom Kol ha'Ir... ha'Zos No'omi."
2)ELIMELECH AND RELATED AGADATA
(a)Question: What does it mean "Ha'Zos No'omi"?
(b)Answer (R. Yitzchak): This hints to 'CHaZiSem No'omi', (have you seen what happened to her for leaving Eretz Yisrael?)
(c)(R. Yitzchak): The day Rus came to Eretz Yisrael, Boaz' wife died;
1.Before someone dies, his replacement is prepared.
(d)(Rabah bar Rav Huna): (The Shofet) Ivtzan is Bo'az.
(e)Question: What do we learn from this?
(f)Answer: This and Rabah bar Rav Huna's other teaching are needed to learn (5) below.
1.(Rabah bar Rav Huna): Bo'az made 120 feasts for his children - "...U'Shloshim Banos Shilach ha'Chutzah u'Shloshim Banos Hevi l'Vanav";
2.For each child he made one feast in the Chasan's house, and one in the house of the Kalah's father.
3.He did not invite Mano'ach to even one of them. He reasoned 'since he is sterile, he will never have occasion to invite me to such a feast!' (Maharsha - the custom was to bring gifts to the feast, and the host returns such gifts when the guest makes a wedding feast. Bo'az did not want to receive a gift that he would be unable to return.)
4.All 60 children died in Bo'az' lifetime.
5.This is like people say, 'what gain is there in 60 children who will die?! I t is better to remarry and have one child who will be zealous!'
6.(Rav Chanan bar Rava): Elimelech, Salmon, Ploni Almoni and No'omi's father all descended from Nachshon ben Aminadav.
(g)Question: What do we learn from this?
(h)Answer: Even great merits of one's fathers do not help him if he goes to Chutz la'Aretz.
(i)(Rav Chanan bar Rava): Avraham's mother was called Amaslai bas Karnevo; Haman's mother was called Amaslai bas Orvasai;
(j)A way to remember this is that Tamei comes from Tamei (Orvasai is like Orev (raven)), and Tahor comes from Tahor (Karnevo is an expression of Karim (pillows, which come from wool of sheep)).
(k)David's mother was Nitzvas bas Ad'el; Shimshon's mother was Hatzlelfoni; his sister was Nashyin.
(l)Question: Why must we know this?
(m)Answer: This helps us answer heretics, who ask these questions.
(n)(Rav Chanan bar Rava): Avraham was imprisoned for 10 years, three in Kusa, and seven in Kardo (Ararat. Rav Dimi taught vice-versa.)
(o)(Rav Chisda): Ivra Ze'ira of Kusa is Or Kasdim.
(p)(Rav Chanan bar Rava): The day that Avraham died, all the important Nochrim bewailed 'the world lost its leader, and the ship lost its captain!
(q)(Rav Chanan bar Rava): "Veha'Misnasei l'Chol l'Rosh" - even the overseer of who draws water from the pit is appointed from Heaven.
3)FAMINE, AND NOSTALGIA
(a)(R. Chiya bar Avin): Elimelech and his family would not have left Eretz Yisrael had they found food, even bran!
1.They were punished because they did not pray for their generation - "b'Za'akech Yatziluch Kibutzayich."
(b)(Rabah bar bar Chanah): Permission to leave Eretz Yisrael depends on the price of grain only when money is cheap and Peros are expensive, but if money is scarce, even if four Se'im sell for a Sela, one may leave.
1.(R. Yochanan): I remember when four Se'im sold for a Sela, and many people had swelled stomachs from hunger in Teveryah, because money was scarce.
2.I remember when workers would refuse to work in the east part of the city, because they would die from the smell of bread.
3.I remember when a child would cut a carob and honey would spurt on his arms.
(c)(R. Elazar): I remember when a raven would take meat, and a stream of fat would extend from the wall (of the city) to the ground.
(d)(R. Yochanan): I remember when boys 16 or 17 years old would play together with girls and not sin.
(e)(R. Yochanan): I remember that they would say in the Beis Midrash 'one who admits to (flatters) idolaters will fall to them.' (Rather, one must refute everything they say.)
1.If one trusts that they will not harm him and lets them see what he has, they will take all he owns.
4)EXPOUNDING NAMES AND VERSES ABOUT RUTH
(a)Question: In Megilas Rus, Elimelech's children are called Machlon and Chilyon. In Divrei ha'Yamim, they are called Yo'ash and Saraf!
(b)Answer #1 (Rav or Shmuel): Their real names were Machlon and Chilyon. They are called Yo'ash and Saraf because they Nisya'ashu (despaired) of Yeshu'ah (salvation) and were worthy to be Nisrafim (burned).
(c)Answer #2 (The other of Rav and Shmuel): Their real names were Yo'ash and Saraf. They are called Machlon and Chilyon because they made themselves Chulin and were worthy of Kelayah (to be wiped out).
(d)Support (for the first opinion - Beraisa): (A verse lists people of Yehudah.) "V'Yokim" is Yehoshua (perhaps his mother was from Yehudah), who was Mekim (fulfilled) the oath to the Givonim. "V'Anshei Chozeva" are the Givonim, who lied (Kazvu) to Yehoshua. "V'Yo'ash v'Saraf" are Machlon and Chilyon;
1.They are called Yo'ash and Saraf because they despaired of salvation and were worthy to be burned.
(e)"Asher Bo'alu l'Mo'av" - they married Moabite women. "V'Yashuvi Lechem" refers to Rus, who returned and clung to Beis Lechem. "Veha'Devarim Atikim" - these matters were said by the Ancient One of the World;
1.It says "Motzasi David Avdi", and "Shtei Venosecha ha'Nimtza'os." David and (Shlomo's son Rechavam) descended from Lot's daughters, who were saved (and permitted to marry into Yisrael, unlike men of Amon and Mo'av).
(f)"Hemah ha'Yotzerim" are the children of Yonadav (descendants of Yisro), who guarded their father's oath (not to drink wine - Yirmeyahu 35:14). "V'Yoshevei Neta'im" refers to Shlomo, who was like a sapling regarding kingship (he grew greatly). "U'Gderah" refers to the Sanhedrin, who fenced the breaches in Yisrael. "Im ha'Melech bi'Mlachto Yoshvu Sham" refers to Rus, who saw the kingship of Shlomo, her grandson's grandson.
1.(R. Elazar): "Va'Yasem Kisei l'Em ha'Melech" was for Rus, the mother of the kingly line.
(g)(Beraisa): "Va'Achaltem Min ha'Tevu'ah Yashan (you will eat old grain)" - without Salamanton.
(h)Question: What does this mean?
(i)Answer #1 (Rav Nachman): Worms will not make it rot.
(j)Answer #2 (Rav Sheshes): Hot winds will not prevent you from aging it.
(k)Support (for Rav Nachman - Beraisa) Suggestion: "Va'Achaltem... Yashan" - perhaps Yisrael will hope for new grain because old grain ceased (through worms)!
1.Rejection: "Ad Bo Tevu'asah" - you (will not be rushed to harvest. You) will wait until it is properly ripened.
(l)Support (for Rav Sheshes - Beraisa) Suggestion: "Va'Achaltem... Yashan" - perhaps Yisrael will hope for new grain because the old grain is bad (due to hot winds)!
1.Rejection: "Ad Bo Tevu'asah" - you will wait until it is properly ripened.
(m)(Beraisa): "Va'Achaltem Yashan Noshan" teaches that older grain is better.
1.Suggestion: Perhaps that applies only to things that are normally aged.
2.Rejection: "Yashan Noshan" teaches about even things that are not normally aged.
3."V'Yashan Mipenei Chadash Totzi'u" teaches that all the storehouses will be full of old Peros, and the granaries will be full of new Peros, and Yisrael say 'how can we clear out the old, to make room for the (inferior) new?!'
(n)(Rav Papa): Everything is better when it is old, except for dates, beer and small fish.