1)BINDING SEFORIM (cont.)

(a)Contradiction (Beraisa): He leaves enough (blank parchment) at each end to roll.

1.Question: What does he roll it around?

i.Suggestion: He rolls around a pole.

ii.Rejection: One end requires enough to surround the Sefer!

iii.Suggestion: He wraps around the outermost parchment.

iv.Rejection: One end requires only enough to wrap around the pole!

(b)Answer #1 (to the contradiction and Question 1 - Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): He leaves what is needed at each end. (At one end, he needs enough to roll around a pole. At the other end, he needs enough to surround the Sefer.)

(c)Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): This Beraisa refers to a Sefer Torah;

1.(Beraisa): Other Seforim are wound (on one pole) from the beginning to the end. We leave a Sefer Torah (open) in the middle, and wrap from poles at both ends.

2.R. Eliezer bar Tzadok says, this is how scribes in Yerushalayim used to write Seforim.

2)THE PROPER SIZE OF A SEFER TORAH

(a)(Beraisa): The height of a Sefer Torah should (l'Chatchilah) equal its circumference when rolled.

(b)Question: How big should it be?

(c)Answer (Rebbi): If one writes on Gevil (untanned hide), it should be six Tefachim. If one uses Klaf, (when the hide is cut into two layers, the layer closer to the hair is called Klaf. It is thinner than Gevil), I do not know.

(d)Rav Huna wrote 70 Sifrei Torah. For one of them the height equaled its circumference.

(e)Rav Acha bar Yakov wrote one Sefer Torah on a calf's hide. The height equaled the circumference.

1.Rabanan were envious, and Rav Acha died.

(f)Rabanan: R. Ami wrote 400 Sifrei Torah.

1.Rav Hamnuna: Perhaps he wrote "Torah Tzivah Lanu Moshe."

(g)Rabanan: R. Ami planted 400 vineyards.

(h)Rav Hamnuna: Perhaps each was (a minimal vineyard,) two rows of two trees, and a fifth tree in back.

(i)Question (Beraisa - R. Meir): The Aron that Moshe made was two and a half Amos in length, its width and height were both one and a half Amos, based on an Amah of six Tefachim;

1.The length and width of each of the Luchos (Tablets) was six Tefachim. Each was three Tefachim thick. They were placed next to the Sefer Torah (in the Aron).

2.Together, they occupied 12 Tefachim. Of the remaining three Tefachim of the Aron's length, the (thickness of the) walls of the Aron occupied one Tefach (half a Tefach each),

3.The (width of the) Sefer Torah fit in the remaining two Tefachim - "Ein ba'Aron Rak..."

i.'Ein' and 'Rak' are two exclusions. Two exclusions come to include;

ii.We include the Sefer Torah.

4.The width of the Luchos occupied 6 Tefachim. The walls of the Aron occupied one Tefach;

i.Another two Tefachim remained, in order that the Torah (whose length was to the Aron's width) could be removed and put back easily.

(j)R. Yehudah says, the dimensions of the Aron are based on an Amah of five Tefachim;

1.The Luchos occupied 12 Tefachim of the Aron's length, the walls of the Aron occupied the remaining half Tefach (each wall was a quarter Tefach);

2.The width of the Luchos occupied 6 Tefachim, and the walls of the Aron occupied half a Tefach; in the remaining Tefach were silver poles - "Amudav Asah Chesef";

3.The chest that the Plishtim sent when they returned the Aron was next to the Aron - "va'Argaz mi'Tzido".

i.The Sefer Torah rested on the chest, next to the Aron, not inside - "v'Samtem Oso mi'Tzad Aron..."

4.The exclusions 'Ein' and 'Rak' come to include the fragments of the broken Luchos.

14b----------------------------------------14b

5.Summation of question: If the circumference of the Sefer Torah is six Tefachim, the width is (a third of the circumference,) two Tefachim;

i.Since we roll a Sefer Torah from both ends, the width is even more (when it is in the middle. Rashash - this is because the area of one circle of diameter 2 equals the combined area two circles of diameter (the square root of 2, which is about) 17/12). The combined diameters is 34/12, which is almost 3.) How can it fit in two Tefachim (according to R. Meir)?

(k)Answer: The Sefer Torah in the Aron was rolled to (Rashi - from) the beginning.

(l)Question: Still, if its width is exactly two Tefachim, it does not fit properly in two Tefachim! (Chasam Sofer - really, the width is less than a third of the circumference (the ratio is 1/Pi, about 7/22). The pole on which it is wound completed the (last 1/11 of a Tefach) two Tefachim.)

(m)Answer (Rav Ashi): A small amount of parchment was left unrolled (so the width of the rolled part was less than two), it rested above the Torah.

3)WHERE THE TORAH AND LUCHOS WERE KEPT

(a)Question: According to R. Yehudah, where was the Sefer Torah before the Plishtim gave the chest?

(b)Answer: It rested on a plank protruding from the Aron.

(c)Question: What does R. Meir learn from "v'Samtem Oso mi'Tzad Aron..."?

(d)Answer: It teaches that the Torah is between the Luchos and the wall of the Aron, not between the two Luchos.

(e)Question: According to R. Meir, where were the silver poles?

(f)Answer: They were outside the Aron.

(g)Question: What is R. Meir's source that the broken Luchos were in the Aron?

(h)Answer #1: He learns like Rav Huna;

1.(Rav Huna): "Shem Shem" teaches that the Luchos and the broken Luchos were in the Aron.

(i)R. Yehudah learns R. Yochanan's law from this verse;

1.(R. Yochanan): This teaches that Hash-m's (primary) name and the other names that refer to Him were in the Aron.

(j)Objection: R. Meir must also learn this from the verse!

(k)Answer #2: He learns like Rav Yosef.

1.(Rav Yosef): "Asher Shibarta v'Samtam ba'Aron" teaches that the Luchos and the broken Luchos were in the Aron.

(l)R. Yehudah expounds this like Reish Lakish.

1..(Reish Lakish): "Asher Shibarta" - Hash-m praised Moshe for breaking the Luchos.

4)THE ORDER OF THE NEVI'IM AND KESUVIM

(a)(Beraisa): The order of the Nevi'im is Yehoshua, Shoftim, Shmuel, Melachim, Yirmeyahu, Yechezkeil, Yeshayah, and the 12 (small prophecies).

(b)Question: Hoshe'a (who is among the 12) prophesized before Yeshayah. His Sefer should precede Yeshayah!

1.Question: Why does it say "Techilas Diber Hash-m b'Hoshe'a"? There were many Nevi'im between Moshe and Hoshe'a!

2.Answer (R. Yochanan): He was the first of four Nevi'im who prophesized in his time: Hoshe'a, Yeshayah, Amos and Michah.

(c)Answer: Since Hoshe'a is among the 12, which includes Chagai, Zecharyah and Malachi (the last Nevi'im), it follows Yeshayah.

(d)Suggestion: It should be written by itself before Yeshayah!

(e)Rejection: Since it is small, it might get lost.

(f)Question: Yeshayah preceded Yirmeyahu and Yechezkeil. His Sefer should precede theirs!

(g)Answer: The end of Melachim discusses the Churban, and all of (Sefer) Yirmeyahu discusses Churban. Yechezkeil begins with Churban and ends with consolation, and all of Yeshayah discusses consolation;

1.These Nevi'im are ordered so that the beginning of each Sefer is like the end of the previous one.

(h)The order of the Kesuvim is Rus, Tehilim, Iyov, Mishlei, Koheles, Shir ha'Shirim, Eichah, Daniel, Megilas Esther, Ezra and Divrei ha'Yamim.

(i)Question: According to the opinion that Iyov lived in Moshe's time, Iyov should be first!

(j)Answer: We do not begin with punishments.

(k)Question: We begin with Rus, which discusses punishments!

(l)Answer: Its punishments have a good end.

1.(R. Yochanan): She is called Rus, because her descendant (David) satiated (Rivahu) Hash-m with songs and praises.

5)WHO WROTE THE SEFORIM

(a)Question: Who wrote Torah, the Nevi'im and Kesuvim?

(b)Answer: Moshe wrote the Torah, including the Parshah of Bilam, and Sefer Iyov;

(c)Yehoshua wrote Sefer Yehoshua and the last eight verses of the Torah;

(d)Shmuel wrote Sefer Shmuel, Shoftim and Rus;

(e)David and ten other Chachamim composed Tehilim - Adam, Malki Tzedek (Shem), Avraham, Moshe, Heiman, Yedusun, Asaf, and Korach's three sons.

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