1)WHOM WE TRUST
(a)(Rav Ashi): I do not need to stipulate. Anyone who gives, he gives on condition that I will distribute it as I see fit.
(b)Two slaughterers made a deal that if either works on the other's day, the skin of his animal will be torn. Reuven worked on Shimon's day, and Shimon tore the skin.
1.Rava: Shimon must pay.
2.Rav Yemar bar Shalmiya: The Beraisa says that people of the city may (fix...) and enforce this with fines!
3.Rava did not answer.
4.Rav Papa: Rava justifiably did not answer. When there is a great person in the city, fines must be enacted in front of him.
(c)(Beraisa): We do not ask collectors of Tzedakah to give a calculation of what they collected and distributed, nor with overseers of Hekdesh;
1.A hint (not a proof) of this is "v'Lo Yechashevu... ve'Emunah Hem Osim" (those who.built the Mikdash did not need to account for what they took).
(d)(R. Elazar): Even when giving money to a trustworthy person, one should wrap and count the money - "va'Yatzuru va'Yimnu."
(e)(Rav Huna): If one (claiming to be poor) requests food, we check if he is truly poor. If he requests clothing, we give before checking.
1.We can learn from a verse or from reasoning.
2.Reasoning - one without clothes is embarrassed. One lacking food is not.
3.A verse - "Paros la'Ra'ev Lachmecha" is written with a 'Sin', it may be read 'Perosh' (clarify before giving). (Either we must say like Tosfos (Shabbos 55B) that the Gemara's text (of Yeshayah) differs from our text, or we must change the text of our Gemara - see Maharsha.)
i."...Ki Sir'eh Arum v'Chisiso" - as soon as you see a naked person, clothe him.
(f)(Rav Yehudah): We check before giving clothing, but not before giving food.
1.We can learn from a verse or from reasoning.
2.Reasoning - one without food is in pain. One lacking clothing is not.
3.A verse - "Paros la'Ra'ev Lachmecha" - immediately;
i."...Ki Sir'eh Arum v'Chisiso" - after you see that he is truly poor.
(g)Support (for Rav Yehudah - Beraisa): If one requests clothing, we check if he is truly poor. If he requests food, we give before checking.
2)HOW MUCH WE GIVE TO THE POOR
(a)(Mishnah): If a poor person is traveling, we give to him at least a loaf bought for a Pundiyon when grain sells for four Sa'im for a Sela (i.e. the loaf is a quarter Kav, the volume of six eggs);
(b)If he will spend the night, we give to him needs of lodging.
1.(Rav Papa): This is a bed and a pillow.
(c)If he will stay over Shabbos, we give to him food for three meals.
(d)(Beraisa): If one begs from door to door, we do not give to him from the Kupah.
(e)A poor person begging from door to door came to Rav Papa. He did not give to him.
1.Rav Sama brei d'Rav Yeiva: If you do not give to him, no one will, and he will die!
2.Question: The Beraisa says that we do not give to him!
3.Answer: We do not give to him a large amount, but we give a small amount.
(f)(Rav Asi): One should give at least a third of a Shekel to Tzedakah every year - "we established Mitzvos upon ourselves... Shlishis ha'Shekel b'Shanah (above the half-Shekel that the Torah requires) for the Mikdash." (Fifty Shekalim used to be a standard annual income.)
(g)(Rav Asi): Tzedakah is equated to all the Mitzvos - "v'Ha'amadnu Alenu Mitzvos (plural)."
(h)(R. Elazar): One who induces others to give is greater than one who gives himself - "v'Hayah Ma'ase ha'Tzedakah Shalom".
1.If one merits (to have a good Mazel), "Paros la'Ra'ev Lachmecha" will apply to him;
2.If not, "v'Aniyim Merudim Tavi Vayis" (the kingdom of Romi, which constantly demands money, will take his money).
(i)Rava (to people of his city): Do (Tzedakah) with each other in order that you will have Shalom with the king.
(j)(R. Elazar): When the Mikdash stood, a person gave a half Shekel, and this was an atonement for him;
1.Now that there is no Mikdash, if one gives Tzedakah, this is good;
2.If not, Nochrim will forcibly take his money.
i.Even so, that is considered Tzedakah - "v'Nogesayich Tzedakah."
(k)(Rav Sheshes (Rashi; Tosfos - Rav Achdevoy bar Ami), who perverted the ways of his mother (this will be explained)): "Va'Yilbash Tzedakah ka'Shiryan" - just like little pieces of iron join to make a big armor, also every Perutah of Tzedakah joins to a great sum.
(l)(R. Chanina): We learn this from "uch'Veged Idim Kol Tzidkoseinu" - just like every thread joins to make a big garment, also every Perutah of Tzedakah joins to a great sum.
3)HOW A METZORA IS METAMEI PEOPLE
(a)Question: How did Rav Sheshes (Tosfos - Rav Achdevoy) pervert the ways of his mother?
(b)Answer: He forced her to act immodestly in the following episode.
1.Question (Rav Achdevoy bar Ami): What is the source that a Metzora during the seven days of counting (after bringing birds, until he shaves again) is Metamei people?
2.Answer (Rav Sheshes): Since he makes clothing Tamei, he makes people Tamei.
3.Question (Rav Achdevoy bar Ami): Perhaps he is Metamei only what he wears, but not other clothing or people;
i.One who moves a Neveilah is Metamei what he wears, but not other clothing or people!
ii.Counter-question (Rav Sheshes): What is our source that a rodent is Metamei people, if not that it is Metamei clothing?
iii.Answer (Rav Achdevoy bar Ami): It says explicitly about rodents "Ish Asher Yiga b'Chol Sheretz"!
iv.Correction - Counter-question (Rav Sheshes): Rather, what is our source that semen is Metamei people, if not that it is Metamei clothing?
v.Answer (Rav Achdevoy): Also about semen, it says "O Ish", to include one who touches!
vi.Rav Achdevoy answered jovially. Rav Sheshes was very hurt, and Rav Achdevoy became mute and forgot his learning. Rav Sheshes' (Tosfos - his) mother begged Rav Sheshes to pray for him; he refused, until she said 'see these breasts that you nursed from (and have mercy on Rav Achdevoy)!'
vii.Rav Sheshes prayed for him, and he recovered.
4.Question: We still did not hear the source that a Metzora during the days of counting is Metamei people!
5.Answer (Beraisa - R. Shimon): It says that a Metzora must wash (immerse) his clothes during the days of counting, and during the days he is Muchlat (absolutely Tamei);
i.Just like he is Metamei people when he is Muchlat, also during the days of counting.
4)THE REWARD OF TZEDAKAH
(a)(R. Elazar ha'Gadol): A covert gift of Tzedakah suppresses damaging angels of anger more than the prayer of Moshe Rabeinu!
1.Moshe said "Ki Yagorti Mipnei ha'Af veha'Chemah" (he feared them). It says about Tzedakah given covertly "Matan ba'Seser Yichpeh Af v'Shochad ba'Cheik Chemah Azah" (it covers them).
(b)Version #1: R. Yitzchak disagrees.
1.(R. Yitzchak): Covert Tzedakah suppresses Af, but not Chemah - "v'Shochad ba'Cheik Chemah Azah";
i.Even though he gives Tzedakah covertly, there is still Chemah.
(c)Version #2 - (R. Yitzchak): Any judge who takes bribery brings harsh Chemah to the world - "V'Shochad ba'Cheik Chemah Azah". (End of Version #2)
(d)(R. Yitzchak): One who gives a Perutah to a poor person gets six blessings. One who comforts him with kind words gets 11 blessings.
1.One who gives ("Paros la'Ra'ev Lachmecha") is rewarded "Yibaka... (he will succeed greatly, he will be healed speedily, his Tzedakah will bring him to Gan Eden, Hash-m's glory will gather him, Hash-m will answer his cry, and Hash-m will do his will);
2.One who comforts him with words ("v'Safek la'Ra'ev Nafshecha") is rewarded "v'Zorach..." (his success will shine, he will be saved from afflictions, Hash-m will always guide him on the good path, he will not suffer hunger or thirst, his bones will be healthy, he will be satiated like a garden that is always moist, and like an unceasing spring, his deeds will build the ruins of the world, and restore the fallen foundations, and he will be called the one who fenced the breach, and returned people to Torah).
(e)(R. Yitzchak) Question: Because one is "Rodef Tzedakah v'Chesed, he will (need and) find... Tzedakah"?
(f)Answer #1 (R. Yitzchak): Rather, anyone who pursues to do Tzedakah, Hash-m will enable him to give Tzedakah.
(g)Answer #2 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): Hash-m will present to him fitting recipients of Tzedakah, so he will get reward.
1.This excludes the case that Rabah taught about.
(h)(Rabah): "Va'Yihyu Muchshalim Lefanecha" - Yirmeyah asked that even when (the people who wanted to kill him) try to do Tzedakah, Hash-m should present to them unworthy recipients, so they will get no reward.