[139a - 34 lines; 139b - 30 lines]
1)[line 1]שמין את המחוברין ללוקחSHAMIN ES HA'MECHUBARIN LA'LOKE'ACH- we appraise, for the purchaser, the value of the fruits that are still attached to the ground (and the purchaser must pay that amount to the heirs, and he may then keep the fruits that are attached to the ground). This refers to a case in which a father gave his property to his son as a gift which would take effect after his death. The son acquires the actual property ("Guf"), while the father retains the rights to eat the produce ("Peros"). If the son sells the property, the buyer acquires the "Guf" immediately, but he acquires the "Peros" only after the death of the father. When the father dies and there is produce still attached to the field, that produce belonged to the father and thus now belongs to his heirs. We appraise the value of the produce and the buyer must pay that value to the heirs, and then he may keep the produce that is attached to the ground.
2)[line 3]הואיל ודעתו של אדם קרובה אצל בנוHO'IL V'DA'ATO SHEL ADAM KEROVAH ETZEL BENO- since a man feels close to his son, [he intends to give his gift with terms that will benefit him]
3)[line 4]אין הגדולים מתפרנסין על ידי הקטניםEIN HA'GEDOLIM MISPARNESIN AL YEDEI HA'KETANIM- the adult children may not take an extra portion of the estate from the share of the minor children for their support needs (such as clothing)
4)[line 6]נזוניןNIZONIN- [the minor children may not] receive food [by taking an extra portion of the estate from the share of the adult children]
5)[line 7]נשאו הגדולים, ישאו הקטניםNIS'U HA'GEDOLIM, YIS'U HA'KETANIM- if the adult children married [from money taken from the estate before it was divided,] the minor children shall marry [also from money from the estate]
6)[line 14]זה חומר בבנות מבבניםZEH CHOMER B'VANOS MIB'VANIM- this is a stringency in the case of daughters [who inherit when there are no sons] over the case of sons [who inherit when there are also daughters]
7)[line 15]שהבנות נזונות על הבניםHA'BANOS NIZONOS AL HA'BANIM- the daughters receive support from the property inherited by the sons
8)[line 16]האי גדול אחיHAI GEDOL ACHEI- this older brother [who manages the estate]
9)[line 16]דלבש ואיכסי מביתאD'LAVASH V'ICHSI MI'BEISA- who dresses and covers himself from the money of the estate
10)[line 16]מאי דעבד עבדMAI D'AVAD AVAD- that which he has done, is done (and the other heirs are not entitled to a larger share corresponding to what the older brother took)
11)[line 17]בשרכאSERACHA- a lazy person (who does nothing productive)
12)[line 18]ניחא להו דלא נינוולNICHA LEHU D'LO NINVAL- it is pleasing to them that he not be disgusting
13)[line 18]מאי קאמר?MAI KA'AMAR?- what is the Mishnah saying? (First, it says that the minor children are entitled to get married using the money of the estate just as the older children used the money of the estate to get married, and then it says that if the minor children say that they want to get married the same way that the older children did, we do not listen to them!)
14)[line 22]אבוה בר גניבאAVUHA BAR GENEIVA- Avuha, the son of Geneiva
15)[line 23]לוותה ואכלה, ועמדה ונשאתLAVSAH V'ACHLAH V'AMDAH V'NISEIS- [a woman] borrowed and consumed the money, and [then] arose and got married
16)[line 23]בעל לוקח הוי או יורש הויBA'AL LOKE'ACH HEVEI O YORESH HEVEI- is the husband considered to be a buyer, or is he considered to be an heir (see Insights)
17a)[line 26]נשאו גדולות לבעלNIS'U GEDOLOS L'VA'AL- the adult daughters married husbands
b)[line 26]ישאו קטנות מבעלYIS'U KETANOS MI'BA'AL- the minor daughters may marry [by collecting the money that their older sisters borrowed from the estate] from the husbands [of their sisters]
c)[line 27]ישאו קטנות לבעלYIS'U KETANOS L'VA'AL- the minor daughters may marry husbands [from the money still belonging the estate, equal to the amount that their sisters used]
18)[line 28]שאני פרנסהSHA'ANI PARNASAH- the money taken for her support is different. (The Gemara refutes the proof that a husband has the status of an heir. Perhaps a husband has the status of a buyer, and, normally, he does not need to pay back his wife's debts. However, in this case, her debt has the status of a Milveh b'Shtar, a loan taken with a Shtar (which everyone, including potential buyers, hears about). This is because the money that she took was for her Parnasah, her general support (clothing, etc.), and when a daughter takes money from the estate for such a purpose, everyone hears about it (it has a "Kol"). Consequently, even if the husband has the status of a buyer, he should have heard about the money that she took and that she now owes, and therefore he is obligated to pay her debt.)
19)[line 28]דאית לה קלאD'IS LAH KOLA- (lit. because it has a voice) because it is well known [that she took money from the estate for her support)
20)[line 29]באגרתיהB'IGARTEI- in his letter
21)[line 31]על ידי היה מעשהAL YADI HAYAH MA'ASEH- with me there was an incident
22)[line 32]נזונת מנכסיוNIZONES MI'NECHASAV- she (the man's widow) is supported from his property (that is, from the property that now belongs to the husband of the daughter of the deceased man)
23)[last line]?אנן לא ידעינןANAN LO YAD'INAN- would we not have known?
24)[last line]ביובלYOVEL- see Background to Bava Basra 112:6
25)[last line]הבכורהHA'BECHORAH- the double portion that a firstborn son receives as his inheritance (see Background to Bava Basra 119:3)
26)[line 2]מי ידעינןMI YAD'INAN?- do we know?
27)[line 3]באושא התקינוB'USHA HISKINU - they instituted in Usha (TAKANAS USHA)
This refers to the ordinance enacted by the Beis Din (Sanhedrin) of Usha, a city in the western part of the lower Galilee. It was one of the ten places to which the Sanhedrin was exiled at the time of the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash. The Beis Din of Usha enacted that if a woman sells her Nichsei Milug during the lifetime of her husband and then she dies before her husband, her husband may expropriate the property from the buyers, because he is considered to be an earlier buyer ("Loke'ach Rishon").
28)[line 3][ב]נכסי מלוגNICHSEI MILUG (NICHSEI MILUG / NICHSEI TZON BARZEL)
A woman brings into her marriage two types of possessions, as follows:
1.Possessions that the wife owned before marriage, the values of which were estimated and written in the Kesuvah, to be returned to her in full upon divorce or the husband's death. These are called Nichsei Tzon Barzel ("Iron Flock Properties") because their value does not change between the time of marriage and the time of divorce or the husband's death.
2.Possessions that were not estimated and their values were not specified in the Kesuvah. Upon divorce or the husband's death, the property is returned as is, regardless of its appreciation or depreciation (or deterioration) over the years. These are referred to as Nichsei Milug ("Properties that are Plucked"), because for the duration of the marriage the husband may take ("pluck") the produce (Peiros) of these possessions (e.g. reaping the fruit of a field, or plowing with an ox). However, he may not "use up" the property itself (e.g. by digging trenches in the field or slaughtering the ox).
29)[line 5]שויוהו רבנןSHAVYUHU RABANAN- the Rabanan gave him the status of
30)[line 6]והיכא דטבא ליה, עבדו ליהHEICHA D'TAVA LEI AVDU LEI- where it (having that status) is best for him, they gave him that status
31)[line 8]פסידא דידיהPESEIDA DIDEI- his loss (that he will incur if he has the status of a Loke'ach)
32)[line 12]אינהו אפסידו אנפשייהוINHU AFSIDU A'NAFSHAIHU- they brought the loss upon themselves (by buying the property of a married woman, knowing that if she dies her husband will be able to expropriate it from them)
33)[line 13]לא איבעי להו למיזבן מאיתתא דיתבא תותי גבראLO IBA'I LEHU L'MIZBAN ME'ITESA D'YASVA TUSEI GAVRA- they should not have bought [property] from a woman who was living with a husband
PEREK #9 MI'SHE'MES
34a)[line 17]הבנים יירשוHA'BANIM YIRESHU- the sons inherit [the estate]
b)[line 17]והבנות יזונוHA'BANOS YIZONU- the daughters are to be supported [from the estate]. (One of the of stipulations of marriage that is imposed by Beis Din is that after the father dies, his daughters must be allowed to live in the house in which he lived, and must be provided for by his household, until they reach adulthood or get married.)
35)[line 18]ישאלו על הפתחיםYISH'ALU AL HA'PESACHIM- should beg for money at people at doorways
36)[line 19]בשביל שאני זכר, הפסדתי?BISHVIL SHE'ANI ZACHAR, HIFSADTI?- because I am a male, I lose?
37)[line 21]וכמה מרובין?V'CHAMAH MERUBIN?- How much is "a lot" [of property]?
38)[line 26]שיבגרוSHE'YIBAGRU- until they reach the age of Bagrus. A girl is a Ketanah (minor) until she has two pubic hairs after she enters her twelfth year. During the following six months she is a Na'arah (maidenhood). When six months elapse (i.e. she reaches the age of twelve and six months) she becomes a Bogeres (adult).