1) [line 2] HEITI'ACH ALAI - he spoke disrespectfully to me [and prevailed] (lit. he threw [words] upon me)
2) [line 4] BEIS CHORON - Beis Choron is the name of twin towns on the border between Binyamin and Efrayim, located in the foothills leading up from Lod to Yerushalayim. The altitude of Beis Choron Elyon is 600 meters, and the altitude of Beis Choron Tachton is 400 meters. The distance between them is three and a half kilometers. The road that connects them is bordered on both sides by steep cliffs and wadis and is called Morad Beis Choron.
3) [line 5] MUDAR HEIMENU HANA'AH - he (the father) was prohibited by a Neder (vow) to receive any benefit from him (the son)
4) [line 13] VI'YEHEI AVON TALUY B'ROSHO! - and the sin (of transgressing a Neder) will be hanging on his (i.e. my) head!
5) [line 14] KOL MATANAH SHE'EINAH SHE'IM HIKDISHAH MUKDESHES, EINAH MATANAH - any gift which is not [absolute] such that if the recipient sanctifies it to Hekdesh it indeed becomes Hekdesh, is not a gift (and it still belongs to the giver)
6a) [line 22] MIKRA - the study of Chumash (the five books of the Torah)
b) [line 22] MISHNAH - the study of Mishnah, the Oral Law, transmitted to Moshe at Mount Sinai
c) [line 22] GEMARA - a deep and comprehensive understanding of the Mishnah and how to reconcile apparent contradictions between different Mishnayos
d) [line 22] HALACHOS - the laws passed orally to Moshe Rabeinu at Mount Sinai (Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai
e) [line 22] AGADOS - the homiletic, non-Halachic parts of Torah
f) [line 22] DIKDUKEI TORAH - letters in the Torah which appear to be extraneous but which were written in order to teach certain Halachos
g) [line 23] DIKDUKEI SOFRIM - (a) decrees enacted by the Chachamim in order to distance people from transgressing the Torah (RASHBAM); (b) laws enumerated by the Chachamim and categorized by numbers (such as the first Mishnah of Maseches Yevamos) (RABEINU GERSHOM)
h) [line 23] KALIN V'CHAMURIN - laws derived through the methodology of "Kal va'Chomer" (KAL VA'CHOMER)
(a) In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is called a Kal va'Chomer (an argument a fortiori, also known as "Din" in the language of the Gemara), by which a Halachic inference is made from a Halachah of lesser consequence to a Halachah of greater consequence, or vice versa.
(b) Unlike a Gezeirah Shavah (see next entry), the Kal va'Chomer inference need not be received as a tradition from one's teacher, since it is based upon logic. And unlike a Hekesh (see Background to Bava Kama 106:15), it can be refuted based on logical grounds.
i) [line 23] GEZEROS SHAVOS - laws derived through the methodology of "Gezeirah Shavah" (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH)
(a) In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Gezeirah Shavah, which is a Halachic device by which two similar words in the Torah from different subjects teach that laws from one subject apply to the other.
(b) A sage is only permitted to use the method of Gezeirah Shavah if he received a tradition from his teachers that a Gezeirah Shavah exists between the two words. However, the comparison that he makes regarding which laws are applied from one subject to the other may be his own, if he did not learn it directly from his teachers. (See Background to Bava Kama 25:19.)
j) [line 23] TEKUFOS - the calculations for the orbits of the sun and the moon (such as the calculation of the Molad, the new moon)
k) [line 23] GEMATRIYOS - alpha-numerical calculations which teach additional meaning to words in the Torah (RASHI to Sukah 25a); the study of the formation of words from acronyms (RASHBAM here)
l) [line 23] MISHLOS KOVSIM V'MISHLOS SHU'ALIM - the parables of launderers and the parables of foxes (the Chachamim often disguised their teachings in parables; see Insights to Bava Basra 73:1)
m) [line 24] SICHAS SHEDIM - the conversation of demons (to be used in an amulet to dispel them)
n) [line 24] SICHAS DEKALIM - the conversation of palm trees
o) [line 24] SICHAS MAL'ACHEI HA'SHARES - the conversation of the Ministering Angels
p) [line 25] MA'ASEH MERKAVAH - the hidden secrets of the Chariot of HaSh-m, as described by Yeshayah and Yechezkel
q) [line 25] HAVAYOS D'ABAYEI V'RAVA - the [answers to all of the] difficult questions Abaye and Rava asked (i.e. were to ask in the future)
7) [line 26] "L'HANCHIL OHAVAI YESH V'OTZROSEIHEM AMALEI." - "To bequeath to those who love Me that which I possess, and I will fill their storehouses." (Mishlei 8:21) - The Gemara explains that "Yesh" refers to the 310 worlds that are in store for those who have filled their "storehouses" with Torah and wisdom (RASHBAM).
8) [line 29] V'YITOL IMO B'CHELKO - and he (the doubtful brother) takes a share of the inheritance from his portion (from the portion of the brother who claims that the other person is his brother)
9) [line 29] YACHZERU NECHASIM LI'MEKEMON - the property is returned to its original place (it is returned to the brother who gave it to him in the first place, and the other brothers do not inherit him)
10) [line 30] NAFLU LO NECHASIM MI'MAKOM ACHER - if property was bequeathed to him from elsewhere (not from the brothers)
11) [last line] YIBUM
(a) If a married man dies childless and has brothers who survive him, his widow (or widows) may not remarry until one of the deceased husband's brothers performs Yibum (levirate marriage) or Chalitzah (levirate release) with the widow (or one of the widows), as it states in Devarim 25:5-10. Chazal learn from the verses that if there are a number of brothers, there is a preference for the oldest brother to perform Yibum or Chalitzah (Yevamos 24a). If the conditions for the Mitzvah of Yibum do not exist, marital relations between a man and his brother's wife are prohibited and make them liable to the punishment of Kares.
(b) Yibum is a type of marriage. Unlike ordinary Kidushin, though, it can be accomplished only through Bi'ah and not through Kesef or Shtar (see Background to Kidushin 2:1:II:b). Nevertheless, the Rabanan instituted that one should precede Yibum with an act similar to Kidushei Kesef or Shtar, which is known as Ma'amar (see Background to Kidushin 43:19). The Bi'ah must be performed with the intention of fulfilling the Mitzvah.
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