[89a - 33 lines; 89b - 41 lines]

1a)[line 1][ברכן בשמונה] מ"וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע"[BIRCHAN B'SHEMONEH] MI'"V'HAYAH IM SHAMO'A TISHMA"- (lit. [Moshe] blessed [Yisrael] with eight in [the verse] "v'Hayah Im Shamo'a Tishma") In Parshas Ki Savo, HaSh-m promises (through Moshe Rabeinu, who spoke the words of the Book of Devarim) that if Bnei Yisrael study the Torah diligently and keep all of the Mitzvos, they will be showered with bountiful blessings. The first word of the first verse of the verses of blessing (Devarim 28:1-14) begins with the letter "Vav" which is eight letters away from the last letter of the last word of the last verse (the letter "Mem").

b)[line 1]וקללן בעשרים ושתיםV'KILELAN B'ESRIM U'SHTAYIM- (lit. and [Moshe] cursed them with twenty-two) After the verses of blessing, HaSh-m promises that if Bnei Yisrael do not study the Torah diligently and do not perform the Mitzvos, they will be utterly destroyed. The first word of the first verse of the verses of destruction ("curses") (ibid. 28:15-68) begins with the letter "Vav," and the last word of the last verse ends with the letter "Heh" (representing the twenty-two letters of the Alef-Beis - from Vav until the end and then from the beginning until Heh)

2)[line 4](סימן אין מעיינין ואין גודשין באגרדמין ובליטרא שלשה ועשר נפש משקלות ממחק עבה לא תעשו לא (יעשה) [ישהה](SIMAN EIN ME'AYNIN V'EIN GODSHIN B'AGARDEMIN UV'LITRA SHELOSHAH V'ESER NEFESH MISHKALOS MEMACHEK AVEH LO SA'ASU LO (YA'ASEH) [YASH'HEH]) - this is a mnemonic device for remembering the following Beraisa'os that the Gemara brings that discuss matters of weights related to the end of our Mishnah (the first two seem to be interchanged):

1.Ein Me'aynin refers to "Tanu Rabanan, Minayin she'Ein Me'aynin b'Makom she'Machri'in..." (line 10)

2.v'Ein Godshin refers to " Tanu Rabanan, Minayin she'Ein Mochakin b'Makom she'Godshin v'Ein Godshin b'Makom she'Mochakin..." (line 6)

3.b'Agardemin refers to "Tanu Rabanan, Yiheyeh Lecha, Melamed she'Ma'amidin Agardemin l'Midos..." (line 15)

4.uv'Litra refers to "Tanu Rabanan, Hayah Mevakesh Mimenu Litra..." (line 21)

5.Sheloshah refers to "Tanu Rabanan, Hayah Mevakesh Mimenu Sheloshah Reva'ei Litra..." (line 23)

6.v'Eser refers to "Tanu Rabanan, Hayah Mevakesh Mimenu Eser Litrin..." (line 25)

7.Nefesh refers to "Tanu Rabanan, Nefesh Moznayim Teluyah ba'Avir..." (line 27)

8.Mishkalos refers to "Tanu Rabanan, Ein Osin Mishkelos Lo Shel Etz..." (Daf 89b, line 5)

9.Memachek refers to "Tanu Rabanan, Ein Osin ha'Machak Shel Dela'as..." (Daf 89b, line 8)

10.Aveh refers to "Tanu Rabanan, Ein Osin Es ha'Machak Tzido Echad Av v'Tzido Echad Katzar..." (Daf 89b, line 11)

11.Lo Sa'asu refers to "Tanu Rabanan, Lo Sa'asu Avel ba'Mishpat..." (Daf 89b, line 22)

12.Lo (Ya'aseh) [Yash'heh] refers to "Tanya Nami Hachi, Lo Yash'heh Adam Midah Chaseirah..." (Daf 89b, line 38)

3a)[line 10]מעייניןME'AININ- [in a place where] they weigh an exact measurement (such as in a place where the practice is not to bend down the scales an extra Tefach for the buyer)

b)[line 10]שמכריעיןMACHRI'IN- [in a place where] they bend down [the side of the scale for the buyer, in order to give him more merchandise]

4)[line 13]"לֹא יִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּבֵיתְךָ אֵיפָה וְאֵיפָה, [גְּדוֹלָה וּקְטַנָּה]""LO YIHEYEH LECHA B'VEISCHA EIFAH V'EIFAH, [GEDOLAH U'KETANAH]"- "You shall not have in your house a measure and a measure, [a large one and a small one]." (Devarim 25:14) - The Gemara interprets the verse as saying, "You will not have [anything] in your house, [because of the sin of having] a measure and a measure, a large one and a small one." The Gemara interprets the preceding verse (Devarim 25:13) in the same manner, "You will not have [anything] in your money-purse, [because of the sin of having] a weight and a weight, a large one and a small one."

5)[line 16]אגרדמיןAGARDEMIN- a public official appointed to check the weights and measures being used and to punish those who use deceitful weights and measures

6a)[line 16]למדותMIDOS- weights and measures

b)[line 16]לשעריםSHE'ARIM- prices

7)[line 16]דבי נשיאהD'VEI NESI'AH- the members of the house of the Nasi (the Exilarch)

8)[line 20]נפקא ליה קרנא בעיניהNAFKA LEI KARNA B'EINEI- a growth of flesh grew in his eye

9)[line 21]הרמאיןRAMA'IN- swindlers

10)[line 22]ליטראLITRA- a measure of weight. A Litra is identified with the Roman Libra, a pound.

11)[line 23]דמתקנינן מתקלי עד הכיD'MASKENINAN MASKELEI AD HACHI- that we (Beis Din) establish weights in these denominations (to be used as the standard measures in order to prevent errors from occuring, and to prevent intentional fraudulent activity)

12)[line 24]שקול לי שלשה רבעי ליטרא אחת אחתSHEKOL LI SHELOSHAH REVA'EI LITRA ACHAS ACHAS- weigh for me [the 3/4 of a Litra of meat that I want to buy by measuring] three one-quarter-Litra weights (as counter-weights), one at a time

13)[line 25]שוקל ליטרא, ומניח רביע ליטרא עם הבשרSHOKEL LITRA U'MENI'ACH REVI'A LITRA IM HA'BASAR- [rather,] he weighs one Litra (as a counter-weight) and he places a one-quarter-Litra weight together with the meat

14)[line 26]והכריעV'HACHRI'A- and tip down [the scale one Tefach in favor of the buyer]

15a)[line 27]נפש מאזניםNEFESH MOZNAYIM- the hollow tube of a balance scale, which constitutes the mechanism by which the scale is attached to the string from which it is suspended from the roof (or by which the scale is held by hand). The hollow tube is attached to the midpoint of the "Kaneh," the horizontal beam of the scale itself, lying with its length across the width of the Kaneh. The string is strung through the hollow tube in order to support the scales and serve as the fulcrum, allowing it to tip freely to either side. Attached to the top of this hollow tube is a "Lashon" ("tongue") which is affixed perpendicular to the Kaneh. Its purpose is to indicate, visually, whether the weights on the two sides of the Kaneh are evenly balanced.

b)[line 28]תלויה באויר שלשה טפחיםTELUYAH BA'AVIR SHELOSHAH TEFACHIM- it must be suspended in the air [at least] three Tefachim [from the ceiling]

16)[line 28]וגבוהה מן הארץ שלשה טפחיםGEVOHAH MIN HA'ARETZ SHELOSHAH TEFACHIM- it must be raised above the ground [at least] three Tefachim

17a)[line 28]וקנהKANEH- the horizontal beam of the scales, to which the two scale-pans are attached on each of its two far sides

b)[line 28]ומתנאMISNA- the cord of the scales

18a)[line 29]צמריםTZAMARIM- wool dealers

b)[line 29]זגגיןZAGAGIN- glass dealers

19)[line 32]טורטניTURTENI- silversmiths and goldsmiths

89b----------------------------------------89b

20)[line 1]דיגרומיDIGRUMEI- coppersmiths and ironsmiths (RASHBAM)

21)[line 2]טומאתןTUM'ASAN - their ability to become Tamei. If the parts of the respective types of scales are not the prescribed sizes, then the scales are not considered Kelim and cannot become Tamei. (TUM'AS KELIM)

A utensil is considered "ready" to receive Tum'ah only after it is completely finished. If the artisan only decided that the utensil needs no more work, it is considered complete and may become Tamei. In our Sugya, the Gemara states that a scale that is not built with the proper-sized parts is not considered a utensil and cannot become Tamei. (For a further discussion of the principles of Tum'ah and Taharah, see Background to Nazir 54:13.)

22)[line 3]חוט מאזניםCHUT MOZNAYIM- the rope by which the scale is hung from the ceiling

23)[line 5]משקלותMISHKALOS- weights

24a)[line 6]בעץBA'ATZ- (O.F. estain) tin

b)[line 6]אברAVAR- (O.F. plombe) lead

c)[line 6]גיסטרוןGISTERON- an alloyed metal (see RABEINU GERSHOM)

25a)[line 8]צונמאTZUNMA- stone

b)[line 8]זכוכיתZECHUCHIS- glass

26)[line 8]המחקMACHAK- (O.F. rastoire) the plane used to smooth down the top of produce in the container

27)[line 9]דלעתDELA'AS- a gourd or pumpkin

28)[line 9]קלKAL- [it is too] light [and it does not smooth down the produce well, and thus the seller will lose out]

29)[line 9]מתכתMATECHES- metal

30)[line 10]מכבידMACHBID- it weighs [on the produce and removes too much of the produce, and thus the buyer will lose out]

31a)[line 10]זיתZAYIS- olive-wood

b)[line 11]אגוזEGOZ- nut

c)[line 11]שקמהSHIKMAH- a sycamore tree (or Egyptian fig)

d)[line 11](אשברוע) [אשכרוע]ESHKERO'A- (O.F. buis) a type of cedar-wood or box-wood

32)[line 22]"לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט, בַּמִּדָּה בַּמִּשְׁקָל וּבַמְּשׂוּרָה""LO SA'ASU AVEL BA'MISHPAT, BA'MIDAH, BA'MISHKAL, UVA'MESURAH"- "You shall not make a corruption of justice, in measures of length, in weight, and in volume." (Vayikra 19:35) - "Mesurah" is used here as a general term for volume, although it literally means a specific measure of volume (i.e. 1/36th of a Log), as the Gemara describes.

33)[line 25]שלא יטמין משקלותיו במלחSHE'LO YATMIN MISHKELOSAV B'MELACH- that one shall not store his weights in salt. According to RASHI in Bava Metzia (61b), and the RASHBAM and RABEINU GERSHOM here, this refers to the buyer's weights (as it was occasionally the buyer who brought his own weights with which to weigh the merchandise); the salt caused the weights to become heavier than they were labeled. According to other Rishonim (RITVA, Bava Metzia 61b), this refers to the seller's weights; the salt corroded the weights, causing them to become lighter than they were labeled. (One transgresses this prohibition the moment that he stores his weights in salt, even before he uses the weight to cheat someone.)

34)[line 26]שלא ירתיחSHE'LO YARTI'ACH- (O.F. escume) that one shall not cause it to foam up (when pouring the wine or other liquid into the buyer's vessel, making it appear full when it is not full)

35)[line 27]משורהMESURAH- a measure of volume, equal to 1/36th of a Log

36)[line 28]הין / לוג / רביעית / תומן / עוכלאHIN / LOG / REVI'IS / TOMAN / UCHLA (MEASURES OF CAPACITY : LIQUIDS)

(a)Equivalents of the liquid measures mentioned in our Gemara:

1 Hin (Tarkav) = 12 Lugin = 1 Tarkav (of dry measure; see below)

1 Chatzi ha'Hin = 6 Lugin

1 Shelishis ha'Hin = 4 Lugin = 1 Kav (of dry measure)

1 Revi'is ha'Hin = 3 Lugin

1 Log = 6 Beitzim = 1/4 Kav (of dry measure)

1 Chatzi Log = 3 Beitzim = 1 Toman (of dry measure)

1 Revi'is Log = 1.5 Beitzim

1 Toman* = 1/8 Log = 0.75 (3/4) Beitzah

1 Chatzi Toman = 1/16 Log = 3/8 Beitzah

1 Uchla = 1/32 Log = 3/16 Beitzah

* The MAHARSHA, in explaining the RASHBAM, points out that "Toman" is a generic term (which means "one eighth," from "Timna" (eight), in Aramaic) which refers to 1/8 of a Log (or 3/4 of a Beitzah) when used in reference to liquid measures, and to 1/8 of a Kav (or 3 Beitzim) when used in reference to dry measures.

(b)Modern-day equivalents:

1 Hin = 3.6, 4.145 or 7.2 liters

1 Log = 0.3, 0.345 or 0.6 liter

37a)[line 31]מדה חסרהMIDAH CHASERAH- a weight or measure that is lacking [its specified measure]

b)[line 32]יתרהYESERAH- a weight or measure that is more [than its specified measure]

38)[line 32]עביט של מימי רגליםAVIT SHEL MEIMEI RAGLAYIM- a clay vessel used for the collection of urine

39)[line 33]באתרא דלא חתימיB'ASRA D'LO CHASIMEI- in a place where they (the government authorities) do not stamp [an official seal of approval on measures]

40)[line 36]מהנדסיMEHANDESEI- appointed officials who check the accuracy of weights and measures and punish those who have inaccurate weights and measures

41a)[line 37]זימנין דמיקרי בין השמשותZIMNIN D'MIKRI BEIN HA'SHEMASHOS- sometimes it happens [that a person comes to buy merchandise] during Beis ha'Shemashos (of Erev Shabbos - RABEINU GERSHOM), at the end of the day [when people are in a hurry to finish their dealings and return home]

b)[line 37]ומיקרי ושקילU'MIKRI V'SHAKIL- and it happens that he weighs [with the inaccurate measure]. The RASHBAM gives two explanations: (a) this refers to the allowance to keep an inaccurate measure in one's possession when there are officials appointed to inspect for such weights and measures; nevertheless, it is prohibited, because perhaps the inspectors will come during Bein ha'Shemashos and will be in a rush and will not find the inaccurate measure; (b) this refers to when there is an official stamp that is placed on valid measures; nevertheless, it is prohibited to keep such a measure in one's home, lest the buyer be in a rush and use it to measure his merchandise, not noticing that it has no official stamp.

42a)[line 40]אבל עושה הוא סאהAVAL OSEH HU SE'AH- but he is permitted to keep the following types of dry measures in his home: a Se'ah, etc. [see detailed list that follows]

b)[line 40]סאה / תרקב / קב / רובע / תומן / עוכלאSE'AH / TARKAV / KAV / ROVA / TOMAN / UCHLA (MEASUREMENTS OF DRY VOLUME)

1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin

1 Tarkav* = 3 Kav

1 Chatzi Tarkav = 1.5 Kav

1 Kav = 4 Lugin = 24 Beitzim

1 Chatzi Kav = 2 Lugin = 12 Beitzim

1 Rova [1/4 Kav] = 1 Log = 6 Beitzim

1 Toman [1/8 Kav] = 3 Beitzim (or 1/2 Log)

1 Chatzi Toman = 1.5 Beitzim

1 Uchla [1/20 Kav] = 1.2 Beitzim

(the word Tarkav is a conjunction of the words Trei (two [Kavim]) and Kav (one Kav), yielding three Kavim.)

OTHER D.A.F. RESOURCES ON THIS DAF