[26a - 39 lines; 26b - 27 lines]
1)[line 1]כדנייד נכתמא אפומיה דחצבאKED'NAYID NICHTEMA A'PUMEI D'CHATZBA- [so strong that] (a) the lid of a jug shakes (RASHI) since the lid is very light (RITZBA, cited by TOSFOS DH a'Puma); (b) the lid of a jug shakes when someone is holding the jug (TOSFOS ibid.)
2)[line 1]דבי בר מריון בריה דרביןD'VEI BAR MERYON BREI D'RAVIN- the house of Meryon, the son of Ravin
3)[line 2]כי הוה נפצי כיתנאKI HAVAH NAPTZEI KISNA- when they were beating out flax
4)[line 2]הוה אזלא רקתאHAVAH AZLA RAKSA- the waste (of the flax) would fly
5)[line 6]זיקא הוא דקא ממטי להZIKA HU D'KA MAMTI LAH- the wind is what carried it
6)[line 7]מִזורה ורוח מסייעתוZOREH V'RU'ACH MESAYATO - one who winnows and the wind helps him (AVOS MELACHOS OF SHABBOS)
(a)There are thirty-nine Avos Melachos (categories of creative acts) that are forbidden mid'Oraisa on Shabbos. Each Av Melachah has Toldos (sub-categories) that are also forbidden mid'Oraisa. A list of the Avos Melachos is found in the Mishnah, Shabbos Daf 73a (see Background to Shabbos 73:6).
(b)A person who transgresses one of the Avos or Toldos of Shabbos, and was unaware that the act was a Melachah, or he was unaware that the day was Shabbos, needs to bring a Korban Chatas to atone for the sin. If he had full intent to do the Melachah, he may be liable to Kares (his life is cut short and/or his children will die out) or Sekilah (death by stoning in the manner prescribed on Sanhedrin). Kares applies if he was not warned, and two witnesses did not see the act. Sekilah applies if he did the Melachah in front of two witnesses despite having received a proper warning. (According to Isi ben Yehudah, transgressing a particular one of the thirty-nine Melachos never results in Sekilah, but it is not known which one - Gemara and Tosfos to Shabbos 6b DH Ha.)
(c)The Av Melachah of Zoreh is winnowing, i.e. using the wind to separate wanted from unwanted objects, such as grain from chaff. A person throws the mixture into the air and the wind blows away the lightweight chaff, while the heavier grain falls back down onto the pile.
7)[line 10]מגץGETZ- a spark
8)[line 10]הפטישPATISH- a hammer
9)[line 18]יעכב את המחרישהYE'AKEV ES HA'MACHAREISHAH- hinder the plow
10a)[line 19]בורBOR- a round pit or well that is dug in the ground; cistern
b)[line 19]שיחSHI'ACH- a narrow elongated well or ditches
c)[line 19]ומערהME'ARAH- a cave (usually leading to a spring or water source)
11)[line 20]כדי עבודת הכרםKEDEI AVODAS HA'KEREM- an open area four Amos in width around a vineyard, which is needed since it was their custom to plow this area, and which was used during the harvest season for the pickers' wagons to drive alongside the vineyard
12)[line 25]ואיכא דרמי לה מירמאIKA D'RAMI LAH MIRMA- there are some [Amora'im] who present the discrepancy in the form of a question [that illustrates the contradiction]
13)[line 28]אמיצרא דפרדיסא דרב יוסףA'MEITZRA D'FARDEISA D'RAV YOSEF- on the border of the vineyard of Rav Yosef
14)[line 32]האי דיקלא דטעין קבאHAI DIKLA D'TA'IN KAVA - a date-palm that produces [at least] a Kav of fruit (MEASUREMENTS OF VOLUME)
For a list of measures of volume used in the Gemara, such as a Kav, see Background to Bava Basra 23:14(a).
15)[line 33]שכיבSHACHIV- died
16)[line 33]שכחת בריSHICHECHAS BERI- my son, Shichechas
17)[line 35]וקא קאיץ שרשיוKA KA'ITZ SHORASHAV- he was cutting the roots [of his date-palms]
18)[last line]ולא (יכילי) [יכילנא] ליהLO (YACHILI) [YACHILNA] LEI- I was not able to [win the argument] with him
19)[line 1]מצר שהחזיקו בו רביםMETZAR SHE'HECHEZIKU BO RABIM- a pathway (lit. border) which the public took possession of (by fixing and preparing it as a pathway)
20)[line 6]יעקב (הדייבא) [חדייבא]YAKOV (HADYEIVA) [CHADYEIVA]- Yakov of Hadyeiv, Adiabena, a district of Assyria between the rivers Lycus and Caprus
21a)[line 9]לא נהנין ולא מועליןLO NEHENIN V'LO MO'ALIN- It is forbidden mid'Rabanan to derive benefit from them, and if one does, he does not bring a Korban Me'ilah (see next entry) since the roots are not Hekdesh, but only appear to be since they have tunneled into the field of Hekdesh
b)[line 9]לא נהנין ולא מועליןLO NEHENIN V'LO MO'ALIN (ME'ILAH)
(a)It is forbidden to derive personal benefit from anything that is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "לֹא תוּכַל לֶאֱכֹל בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ... וְכָל נְדָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר תִּדֹּר" "Lo Suchal le'Echol b'Sha'arecha... Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3). The minimum amount for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth of benefit.
(b)If someone benefited from Hekdesh intentionally, he receives Malkos and must pay to Hekdesh the amount that he benefited. However, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.
(c)If someone benefited from Hekdesh unintentionally, the object loses its Kedushah. He must bring a Korban Me'ilah and repay Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). This is true of any object that has Kedushas Damim (i.e. its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object that has Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is") does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a).
22)[line 15]מידי איריאMIDI IRYA- neither can be inferred from the [seemingly contradictory] sources
23)[line 15]בגידולין הבאין לאחר מכאןGIDULIN HA'BA'IN L'ACHAR MI'KAN- shoots that grow afterwards (i.e. after the tree was consecrated to Hekdesh, and one opinion states that these shoots are not considered to belong to Hekdesh)
(a)The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge in one's field every year to the Beis ha'Mikdash. The verse states, "וְהָיָה כִּי תָבוֹא אֶל הָאָרֶץ... וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְיָשַׁבְתָּ בָּהּ... וְלָקַחְתָּ מֵרֵאשִׁית כָּל פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה..." "v'Hayah Ki Savo El ha'Aretz... vi'Rishtah v'Yashavta Bah… v'Lakachta me'Reishis Kol Pri ha'Adamah..." - "And it shall be that when you come to the land... and you inherit it and you settle in it. You shall take of the first fruits of the land..." (Devarim 26:1-2). Each farmer enters the Azarah (courtyard) of the Beis ha'Mikdash with his Bikurim fruit in a decorative basket. While the basket is on his shoulder, he recites the Mikra Bikurim, specific verses from Devarim (26:3, 5-10) thanking HaSh-m for taking us out of Egypt and giving us the land of Yisrael. He then places the basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12) and bows down before HaSh-m. Afterwards, he gives the Bikurim to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1).
(b)The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) - wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2).
(c)Kohanim eat the Bikurim b'Taharah, within the walls of Yerushalayim. If a person eats them outside of Yerushalayim after the Bikurim have entered Yerushalayim (according to the Rambam, or after the Bikurim have entered the Azarah according to Rashi in Makos 18b), he receives Malkos. They must be brought back into Yerushalayim and eaten there.
25)[line 21]עשר נטיעות המפוזרות בתוך בית סאהESER NETI'OS HA'MEFUZAROS B'SOCH BEIS SE'AH (SHEVI'IS: ESER NETI'OS)
(a)The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7.
(b)Chazal learn from the verse, "בֶּחָרִישׁ וּבַקָּצִיר תִּשְׁבֹּת" "be'Charish uva'Katzir Tishbos" (Shemos 34:21), that mid'Oraisa, the prohibition against plowing the land during Shemitah starts one month before the actual Shemitah year ("Tosefes Shevi'is"). This applies both to fields and to orchards with grown trees. The Rabanan added to this prohibition and prohibited plowing a field from the Pesach before Shemitah, and an orchard with grown trees from the Shavuos before Shemitah.
(c)The Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai of "Eser Neti'os" teaches that if ten saplings are planted with equidistant spacing in an area of a Beis Se'ah (2500 square Amos - see Background to Bava Basra 23:13:c), one is permitted to plow that area right up to Rosh Hashanah of the Shemitah year, in spite of the Mitzvah of Tosefes Shevi'is described above. If there are less than ten saplings in this area or they are not planted as above (with equidistant spacing in the area of a Beis Se'ah), it is only permitted to plow the immediate area around each sapling up to the Shemitah year, but not the entire orchard (Shevi'is 1:6).
26)[line 24]גרמידיGARMIDEI- Amos