1)MEDICAL ADVICE

(a)(Rav Yehudah): A cut from a thorn should be put in hot water. Cold water helps for wrinkles on the face. Vice-versa is dangerous;

(b)Vinegar is good for bloodletting, and small fish are good for a fast. Vice-versa is dangerous;

(c)It is dangerous to let blood after eating cress, or after a fever, or after an eye ache;

(d)It is good to eat fish the day before bloodletting, and also the day after. To eat fish on the third day is dangerous.

(e)(Beraisa): One who lets blood should not eat milk, cheese, onions or cress.

(f)(Abaye): If he ate one of these, he should mix a Revi'is of vinegar and a Revi'is of wine, and drink it;

1.He should relieve himself east of the city, so the stench will not bother people.

(g)(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): On Shabbos, we may raise Unkli (tonsils that obstructs breathing; Aruch - the opening to the stomach);

1.To raise it, we take a handful of cumin and mint, horehound, savory, and hyssop, and drink them with wine.

(h)For blisters he should drink these with water. A woman who is chilled while giving birth should drink them with beer.

(i)Rav Acha brei d'Rava ground them up together, took a handful and drank them. Rav Ashi ground them up together, and took between his thumb and pinky.

(j)Rav Papa: None of these worked for me. I later heard to take a small new flask of water with a spoonful of honey, put it under the stars, and to drink it the next day. This worked.

(k)(Beraisa): The following six things cure: eating cabbage, beets, dry pennyroyal (mint), stomach, womb, and diaphragm. Some say, also small fish cure;

1.Small fish help the whole body improve and grow.

(l)The following 10 things aggravate sickness: eating ox meat, (permitted) Chelev, roasted meat, fowl, roasted eggs, cress, shaving, a hot bath, cheese, and liver;

1.Some add nuts; some add gourds;

2.Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael says, they are called 'Kishu'in' because they are Kashin (harsh) to the body like swords.

2)HAIRCUTS FROM A NOCHRI

(a)(Mishnah - R. Meir): We do not get haircuts from them in any place.

(b)(Beraisa): If a Nochri is cutting one's hair, he should look in a mirror;

(c)If a Yisrael cuts a Nochri's hair, he must not cut near the Bluris (hair left for idolatrous rites).

(d)Question: The Beraisa says that if a Nochri is cutting one's hair, he should look in a mirror. What is the case?

1.If he is in a Reshus ha'Rabim, why does he need a mirror? (Many see him!)

2.If he is in a Reshus ha'Yachid, even with a mirror it is forbidden!

(e)Answer: Really, he is in a Reshus ha'Yachid. He looks in a mirror to make the Nochri think that he is important, so the Nochri is afraid to kill him.

(f)A Nochri was cutting the hair of Rav Chana bar Bizna in the outskirts of Neharde'a.

1.The Nochri: Your neck is proper to be cut!

2.Rav Chana bar Bizna: I deserve it, for transgressing R. Meir's opinion.

3.Question: He also transgressed Chachamim's opinion. They permit only in a Reshus ha'Rabim!

4.Answer: R. Chana thought that since many people pass by, it is like a Reshus ha'Rabim.

(g)(Beraisa): If a Yisrael cuts a Nochri's hair, he must not cut near the Bluris.

(h)Question: How much must he distance from it?

(i)Answer (Rav Malkiyah): He must distance three fingers in every direction.

(j)Version #1 (Rav Chanina brei d'Rav Ika): Rav Malkiyo taught the teachings about spit, slaves, and hair follicles;

1.Rav Malkiyah taught the teachings about Bluris, ashes, and cheese.

(k)Version #2 (Rav Papa): The teachings that explain Mishnayos and Beraisos are of Rav Malkiyah; the teachings that have no source in the Tana'im are of Rav Malkiyo.

(l)The versions argue regarding slaves (Rav Papa attributes it to Rav Malkiyah. Rashi - they also argue about ashes; Rav Papa attributes it to Rav Malkiyo).

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3)FORBIDDEN FOODS OF NOCHRIM

(a)(Mishnah): One may not benefit from the following things of Nochrim:

1.Their wine, vinegar that came from their wine, Hadriani earthenware (all these will be explained later), and hides with a hole from which the heart was removed;

(b)R. Shimon ben Gamliel forbids if the hole is round, and permits if it is long and narrow;

(c)R. Akiva says, meat being taken to (where they are serving) idolatry is permitted. What is taken from it is forbidden, for it is like something sacrificed to idolatry.

(d)One may not do business with people heading to serve idolatry. One may do business with people returning from it.

(e)R. Meir says, if wine of a Yisrael was put in a pouch or bottle of a Nochri, one may not benefit from it;

(f)Chachamim say, one may not drink it, but one may benefit from it.

(g)R. Meir says, one may not benefit from grape skins and pits of a Nochri;

(h)Chachamim forbid while they are still wet (i.e. for 12 months). After this, they permit.

(i)R. Meir says, one may not benefit from fish oil and cheese of Nochrim of Beis Unaiki;

(j)Chachamim forbid eating them, but permit benefit from them.

(k)Question (R. Yishmael): Why is cheese of Nochrim forbidden (according to Chachamim)?

(l)Answer #1 (R. Yehoshua): It is because they use (hardened milk inside) stomachs of Neveilos to curdle it.

(m)Objection (R. Yishmael): The Isur of an Olah is more severe, and some permitted a Kohen to suck what is inside the stomach of an Olah;

1.The consensus was, it is forbidden, but there is no Me'ilah, i.e. the Isur is only mid'Rabanan!

(n)Answer #2 (R. Yehoshua): Rather, it is because they use stomachs of calves used for idolatry to curdle it.

(o)Objection (R. Yishmael): If so, it should be forbidden to benefit from it!

(p)R. Yehoshua diverted the discussion. Do you read the verse "Ki Tovim Dodecha mi'Yayin" (masculine, Yisrael discusses how dear Hash-m is to them), or "Dodayich" (feminine, Hash-m discusses how dear Yisrael is to Him)?

(q)R. Yishmael: It is "Dodayich."

(r)R. Yehoshua: No, it is "Dodecha." We learn from "l'Rei'ach Shemanecha Tovim."

4)THE ISUR OF WINE

(a)(Gemara) Question: What is the source that one may not benefit from wine that was offered to idolatry?

(b)Answer #1 (Rabah bar Avuha): We learn from "Chelev Zevacheimo... Yein Nesichum";

1.Just like one may not benefit from Korbanos to idolatry, also from wine that was offered to idolatry.

(c)Question: What is the source that one may not benefit from Korbanos to idolatry?

(d)Answer: "... Va'Yochelu Zivchei Mesim" - just like one may not benefit from a corpse, also from Korbanos to idolatry.

(e)Question: What is the source that one may not benefit from a corpse?

(f)Answer: We learn from a Gezerah Shavah "Sham-Sham" from the beheaded calf:

1.It says "va'Tamas Sham Miryam", and regarding the beheaded calf it says "v'Arfu Sham" - just like one may not benefit from the beheaded calf, also from a corpse.

(g)Question: What is the source that one may not benefit from the beheaded calf?

(h)Answer (d'Vei R. Yanai): The beheaded calf is called 'Kaparah', just like Kodshim.

(i)(Mishnah): Vinegar that came from their wine (is forbidden).

(j)Objection: This is obvious! It was forbidden to benefit from the wine. Souring will not permit it!

(k)Answer (Rav Ashi): This Mishnah teaches (by inference) that one may entrust vinegar with a Nochri with a single seal (even according to the opinion that requires a double seal for wine).

1.We are not concerned lest he be Menasech vinegar (pour it to idolatry. The Mishnah forbids vinegar that came from their wine. This implies that vinegar they bought from a Yisrael is permitted);

2.We are not concerned lest he switch a Yisrael's vinegar with his own (inferior) vinegar. He would not bother to forge (duplicate) the seal for this.

(l)(R. Ila'i): If a Nochri cooked his own wine, it is forbidden.

(m)Objection: This is obvious! It was forbidden to benefit from the wine, cooking will not permit it!

(n)Answer (Rav Ashi): R. Ila'i teaches that one may entrust cooked wine with a Nochri with a single seal.

1.We are not concerned lest he be Menasech cooked wine. (The Mishnah forbids his own cooked wine. This implies that cooked wine he got from a Yisrael is permitted);

2.We are not concerned lest he switch it with his own cooked wine. He would not bother to forge the seal.

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