[6a - 35 lines; 6b - 45 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon Kodashim, the Vilna Ga'on and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 6a DH Machzir Es ha'Kar ד"ה מחזיר את הכר:

The words "v'Kani l'Mashkon Yom d'Hainu Machareishah" וקני למשכון יום דהיינו מחרישה

should be "v'Kani l'Mashkon d'Hainu Machareishah" וקני למשכון דהיינו מחרישה

(the word Yom is unnecessary)

[2] Gemara 6b [line 15]:

The colon is unnecessary; see below, entry #11

[3] Gemara [line 16]:

"(Lishna Acharina)" לישנא אחרינא

These words are enclosed in parentheses to indicate that they should be removed; however, they are actually the correct Girsa

[4] Gemara [line 41]:

"Amar Rav Yosef, Ha Mani" until "Kegon she'Humam" אמר רב יוסף הא מני... כגון שהומם (at the end of the page)

All of these words are not in the Girsa of Tosfos and not in the Lishna Kama לשנא קמא of Rashi; however, they are in the Girsa of the Lishna Basra לשנא בתרא of Rashi

[5] Gemara [last line]:

"Rava Amar" רבא אמר

In Yoma 63b the Girsa is "Ravina Amar" רבינא אמר

[6] Rashi 6b DH Aval Hacha ד"ה אבל הכא:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #26


1)[line 11]מוסיף חומשMOSIF CHOMESH - he adds a fifth (ASHAM GEZEILOS)

When a person steals money from a fellow Jew, swears in Beis Din that he holds no such money, and later admits his sin, he must return what he stole, pay a fine of Chomesh, an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value), and bring a Korban Asham Vadai to receive atonement (Vayikra 5:20-26). The Korban Asham Gezeilos is a ram that costs at least two Sela'im.

2)[line 13]משכוןMASHKON - collateral

The Torah prohibits a lender from taking an object of the borrower as collateral against the will of the borrower, as it says, "When you lend to your fellow man any type of loan, do not come into his house to take something as security" (Devarim 24:10).

3)[line 13]"[כי תשה ברעך משאת מאומה] לא תבא אל ביתו לעבט עבטו""[KI SASHEH V'RE'ACHA MASHAS ME'UMAH,] LO SAVO EL BEISO LA'AVOT AVOTO."- "[When you lend to your fellow man any type of loan,] do not come into his house to take something as security (Devarim 24:10)

4)[line 15]המחרישהHA'MACHAREISHAH- the plow

5)[line 20]פאהPE'AH

(a)The corner, or end, of the harvest of grain must be left in the field for the poor, as it states "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam" - "Do not completely harvest the corner of your field... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger." (Vayikra 19:9-10).

(b)The requirement to leave Pe'ah for the poor applies to trees as well, as Chazal learn from the verse, "Ki Sachbot Zeisecha, Lo Sefa'er Acharecha; la'Ger, la'Yasom vela'Almanah Yiheyeh" - "When you beat your olive trees to shake off the fruit, do not remove all of its splendor; it (the amount that you leave as Pe'ah — Chulin 131b) shall be for the convert, the orphan and the widow" (Devarim 24:20). Pe'ah does not apply to vegetables, as is explained in Pesachim 56b.

6a)[line 22]קמהKAMAH- the standing stalks of grain

b)[line 23]עמריםOMARIM- the tied bundles (sheaves) of grain

7)[line 24]מירחוMIRCHO- he smoothed out the pile of grain in his granary

8)[line 30]בצרוBATZRO- and he harvested his grapes

9a)[line 30]פרטPERET

Peret refers to individual (one or two) grapes that fall during the harvest. They may not be gathered by the owner of the vine but must be left for the poor, as stated in Vayikra (19:10), "... u'Feret Karmecha Lo Selaket, le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam" - "... nor shall you gather the fallen grapes of your vineyard; you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger."

b)[line 31]עוללותOLELOS

Olelos are incompletely-formed grape clusters, in which no grapes hang from the tip of the central stem, and the grapes on the side-stems that part from the central stem do not lie on one another. These clusters must be left behind on the vine for the poor, as stated in Vayikra (19:10), "v'Charmecha Lo Se'olel... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam" - "And you shall not glean your vineyard... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger."

c)[line 31]שכחהSHICHECHAH

If one or two bundles of grain were forgotten in the field when the other bundles were collected, they must be left for the poor, as described in Devarim (24:19). Also, one may not backtrack to harvest a row previously overlooked.

10)[last line]רבית קצוצהRIBIS KETZUTZAH / AVAK RIBIS

(a)It is forbidden to lend money with interest (Shemos 22:24, Vayikra 25:36, Devarim 23:20). Even if interest is charged conditionally, and it is eventually not collected, the transaction is prohibited (and possibly mid'Oraisa, according to some Tana'im).

(b)The Torah forbids lending with interest only if the rate or amount of interest was fixed at the time that the loan was made. This is called Ribis Ketzutzah. If interest was paid but the amount paid was not fixed at the time of the loan, or if a higher price was paid in a sale in order that the seller should allow the buyer more time to complete his payment for the purchase, it is called Avak Ribis or Ribis d'Rabanan. In addition to these, certain payments that are not actually Ribis mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan were prohibited because they have similarities to Ribis. Chazal refer to this as "Ha'aramas Ribis."

(c)It is also forbidden to take money in order to allow the borrower more time to complete the payment of the loan. (Such payment is known as "Agar Natar.") Any reward for waiting [to receive one's money] is prohibited. This is the general principle that sums up the prohibitions of Ribis d'Oraisa and Ribis d'Rabanan.


11)[line 16]בהני שינויי דשנינןB'HANEI SHINUYEI D'SHANINAN- in these answers that we answered. That is, the difference between the opinions of Abaye and Rava will be expressed only in the manner in which the verses are to be learned in all of the abovementioned cases (see Rashi)

12)[line 19](בחנותיה) [בגותיה](B'CHANUSEI) [B'GAVASEI]- in its place

13)[line 19]גלימאGELIMA- a cloak

14)[line 22]"כל אשר בו מום לא תקריבו""KOL ASHER BO MUM LO SAKRIVU" - "Any [animal] in which there is a blemish, you shall not offer" (Vayikra 22:20) ((MUMIN: MUMEI BEHEMAH)

(a)There are three types of blemishes (Bechoros 43a): 1. blemishes that invalidate a Kohen from doing the Avodah or invalidate an animal from being offered as a sacrifice on the Mizbe'ach; 2. blemishes that only invalidate a Kohen but not an animal; 3. blemishes that invalidate a Kohen and also an animal but only because of Mar'is ha'Ayin (for appearance sake).

(b)The following is a list of blemishes that invalidate an animal from being offered as a sacrifice (Vayikra 22:22-24, based partially on Rav Aryeh Kaplan's "The Living Torah"). Although there is a dispute as to the precise meaning of the names of the Mumim, all of the blemishes are known through tradition (RAMBAM, Perush ha'Mishnah to Bechoros 7:2).

1.AVERES - blind (even in one eye)

2.SHAVUR - broken-limbed

3.CHARUTZ - gashed; this includes a perforated or split eyelid, nose or lip, or a gash anyplace where there is a bone

4.YABELES - warts

5.GARAV - mange, the animal equivalent of eczema

6.YALEFES - ringworm

7.SARU'A - an extra limb or an overgrown limb

8.KALUT - a missing limb or un-split hooves

9.MA'UCH - testicles crushed by hand

10.KATUS - testicles crushed by an implement

11.NATUK - testicles that are pulled loose

12.KARUS - severed testicles

(c)The Torah expresses the prohibition to offer a blemished animal as a Korban in three different verses: (a) Vayikra 22:20, (b) 22:22, and (c) 22:24. The Torah adds (22:25) that we do not accept a Ba'al Mum even from a Nochri. The Gemara here discusses why this prohibition is repeated so many times.

15)[line 27]קבלת הדםKABALAS HA'DAM

(a)The offering of a Korban is comprised of four main actions. These four "Avodos" are Shechitah (slaughtering), Kabalas ha'Dam (collecting the blood of the Korban that will be cast on the Mizbe'ach), Holachah (carrying the blood towards the Mizbe'ach) and Zerikah (casting the blood on the outer altar).

(b)In the Avodah of Kabalas ha'Dam, a Kohen catches the life-blood of the animal in a utensil, which is then brought to the top of the Mizbe'ach.

(c)Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah maintains that one who sanctifies and offers a blemished animal transgresses a prohibition against performing Kabalas ha'Dam with a blemished animal (in addition to the other five prohibitions mentioned in the Beraisa here).

16)[line 28]"עורת או שבור או חרוץ או יבלת ... לא תקריבו""AVERES O SHAVUR O CHARUTZ O YABELES ... LO SAKRIVU"- "You may not offer an animal that is blind, broken-limbed, gashed, or that has warts" (Vayikra 22:22)

17)[line 30]אלו אשיםELU ISHIM- these are Korbanos which are not to be eaten by the Kohanim, but are entirely burnt (this refers to a Korban Olah)

18)[line 32]שעיר המשתלחSA'IR HA'MISHTALE'ACH - the goat that is sent away (SA'IR LA'AZAZEL)

(a)On Yom ha'Kipurim, a Goral (lottery) is performed by the Kohen Gadol to choose between two identical goats (Vayikra 16:7-10). One (the Sa'ir la'Sh-m) is offered as a Korban Chatas ha'Nisraf and its blood is sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:15); the other (the Sa'ir la'Azazel) is dispatched ("Mishtale'ach") to Azazel (a hard rocky cliff), from which it is pushed off to its death (Vayikra 16:21-22).

(b)A strip of crimson wool is tied between the horns of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach before it is led to Azazel. The person who takes the goat to Azazel becomes Tamei and is required to immerse his body and clothes in a Mikvah (Vayikra 16:26). The remains of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach are Asur b'Hana'ah.

(c)Before it is dispatched to Azazel, the Kohen Gadol performs Semichah upon the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach, confessing the sins of all of the people while doing so. According to Rebbi Yehudah, this confession achieves atonement for all of the people, for all sins except sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav. According to Rebbi Shimon, this confession achieves atonement for all of the people except the Kohanim, for all sins except sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav. (The second confession over the Par of the Kohen Gadol provides the Kohanim atonement for all other sins besides sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav.)

19)[line 36]פרת חטאתPARAS CHATAS (PARAH ADUMAH)

(a)The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired cow, is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes (Bamidbar 19:1-22). Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah (Bamidbar 19:2).

(b)A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. Performing another action while slaughtering the Parah Adumah, such as cutting a gourd, invalidates the Parah (Chulin 32a, SIFREI Chukas 19:3).

(c)Sereifas ha'Parah (burning the cow) is also performed on Har ha'Zeisim. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool, are thrown into the carcass of the cow while it is burning (Bamidbar 19:6).

(d)If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a corpse or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

20)[line 40]אין הגורל (קבוע) [קובע] אלא בדבר הראויEIN HA'GORAL (KAVU'A) [KOVE'A] ELA B'DAVAR HA'RA'UY- the Goral (lottery; see above, entry #18) establishes [the status of each animal] only when each animal is fit [to be offered as a Korban, i.e. unblemished]. The outcome of the lottery that is performed in order to determine which of the two goats is to be offered as a Korban and which is to be dispatched to Azazel has legal status only when both animals are without blemish and could be offfered as a Korban.