Mishnah 1

1)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses a case where the ceiling of a room is split in two, and a k'Zayis of Meis is lying in one of the halves. Which way does the split run, along length-wise or breadth-wise?

(b)What does the Tana rule (regarding Keilim that are lying in the inner half of the room) assuming that the Tum'ah is lying in the outer half?

(c)What is the reason for this ruling?

1)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses a case where the ceiling of a room is split in two - breadth-wise and a k'Zayis of Meis is lying in one of the halves.

(b)Assuming that the Tum'ah is lying in the outer half, the Tana rules that - Keilim that are lying in the inner half of the room are Tahor ...

(c)... because the Tum'ah is not destined to be taken there.

2)

(a)Assuming that the Tum'ah is lying in the inner half of the room, there is a triple Machlokes as to how wide the split must be for the Keilim in the outer half to remain Tahor. According to Beis Shamai, the split must be four Tefachim, and according to Beis Hillel, Kolshehu. What does Kolshehu really mean?

(b)What does R. Yossi quote Beis Hillel as saying?

2)

(a)Assuming that the Tum'ah is lying in the inner half of the room, there is a triple Machlokes as to how wide the split must be for the Keilim in the outer half to remain Tahor. According to Beis Shamai, the split must be four Tefachim, and according to Beis Hillel, Kolshehu - which really means as thick as the thread of a plumb-line (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)According to R. Yossi - Beis Hillel requires a Pose'ach Tefach.

Mishnah 2

3)

(a)What does the Tana say about a sun-porch whose roof is split down the middle (see Tos. Yom-Tov), where there is a piece of Meis on one side and Keilim on the other?

(b)And what if one placed one leg or a cane across the split, joining up both sides?

(c)On what condition will a cane that is placed below the split transmit Tum'ah to any Keilim that are inside the sun-porch?

(d)On what grounds do they become Tamei?

3)

(a)The Tana rules in the case a sun-porch whose roof is split down the middle (see Tos. Yom-Tov), where there is a piece of Meis on one side and Keilim on the other that - the Keilim remain Tahor (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)If however, one places one leg or a cane across the split, joining up both sides - then the leg or the cane joins the two sides (see Tos. Yom-Tov), and everything in the sun-porch is Tamei.

(c)A cane that is placed below the split will transmit Tum'ah to any Keilim that are inside the sun-porch - provided it is raised at least one Tefach from the ground ...

(d)... since it is then considered as if the cane filled the crack above it (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 3

4)

(a)The Mishnah discusses a Sagos Aveh or a Kofes Aveh. What is ...

1. ... a Sagos Aveh?

2. ... a Kofes Aveh?

(b)Assuming that there is a k'Zayis Meis lying underneath one end of ...

1. ... a Sagos Aveh or of a Kofes Aveh, on what condition will it transmit Tum'ah to Keilim lying underneath the other end?

2. ... a number of garments placed one on top of the other, on what condition will they transmit Tum'ah to Keilim lying underneath the other end?

(c)According to Beis Shamai, the same will apply to a corpse lying across a sun-porch (since it is not raised one Tefach from the ground). On what basis do Beis-Hillel disagree?

4)

(a)The Mishnah discusses ...

1. ... a Sagos Aveh - a woolen garment more than a Tefach thick.

2. ... a Kofes Aveh - a beam more than a Tefach thick.

(b)Assuming that a k'Zayis Meis is lying underneath one end of ...

1. ... a Sagos Aveh or of a Kofes Aveh, it will transmit Tum'ah to Keilim lying underneath the other end - provided it is raised at least one Tefach from the ground.

2. ... a number of garments placed one on top of the other, they will transmit Tum'ah to Keilim lying underneath the other end - provided the top one is raised at least one Tefach from the ground.

(c)According to Beis Shamai, a corpse lying across a sun-porch will not transmit Tuma'ah from one end to the other - since it is not raised one Tefach from the ground). Beis-Hillel disagree - because the hollow spaces inside the corpse's body render whichever part of it is on top as being raised one Tefach from the ground.

Mishnah 4

5)

(a)According to Beis Shamai, if someone who is leaning out of a window is Ma'ahil over people who are burying a dead person, does not transmit Tum'ah into the room where he is. What does 'people who are burying a dead person' mean?

(b)What do Beis Hillel say?

(c)What are Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel's reasons?

(d)In which two cases do Beis Shamai concede that the Keilim in the room do become Tamei?

5)

(a)According to Beis Shamai, someone who is leaning out of a window and is Ma'ahil over people who are burying a dead person, does not transmit Tum'ah into the room where he is. People who are burying a dead person' refers to - the Meis that they are burying.

(b)Beis Hillel rules - that he does ...

(c)... because they consider a person's body to be hollow, as we just learned, whereas Beis Shamai do not (and the Mishnah is speaking in a case where the person's body is less than a Tefach from the window-sill.

(d)Beis Shamai will concede that the Keilim in the room do become Tamei - if the man is either wearing clothes or if there are two people one on top of the other, in which case either his clothes or the person on top will transmit Tum'ah into the room.

Mishnah 5

6)

(a)What do Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel, respectively, say in a case where the Kovrei ha'Meis are Ma'ahil over a person who is lying on the threshold, with half his body inside the house?

6)

(a)In a case where the Kovrei ha'Meis are Ma'ahil over a person who is lying on the threshold, with half his body inside the house Beis Shamai rule - that the house is Tahor (see Tos. Yom-Tov), Beis Hillel - that it is Tamei (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 6

7)

(a)What do Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel, respectively, say in the same case, but where the Meis is inside the house and a Tahor person is Ma'ahil over the person lying on the threshold?

7)

(a)In the same case, but where the Meis is inside the house and a Tahor person is Ma'ahil over part of the body that is lying outside - Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel - argyue as they did in the previous case.

Mishnah 7

8)

(a)Now the Mishnah discusses a dog that swallowed a k'Zayis Meis and died, and that is lying on the threshold of a house. According to R. Meir, the criterion of it transmitting Tum'ah into the house lies in the size of its neck. How wide must it be for the Keilim in the house to become Tamei?

(b)How do we measure it?

(c)Why is that?

(c)What would be the Din if the dog was alive?

8)

(a)Now the Mishnah discusses a dog that swallowed a k'Zayis Meis and died, and is lying on the threshold of a house. According to R. Meir, the criterion of it transmitting Tum'ah into the house lies in the size of its neck - which must be a Posei'ach Tefach for the Keilim in the house to become Tamei.

(b)We measure it - by placing a piece of string measuring three Tefachim round its neck ...

(c)... because whatever is a Tefach in diameter has a circumference of three Tefachim.

(d)If the dog was alive - the house would be Tahor, since Tum'ah Belu'ah (Tum'ah that is absorbed inside a living creature is not Metamei [see Tos. Yom-Tov]).

9)

(a)According to R. Yossi, the criterion lies in the location of the Tum'ah. Where must the Tum'ah be for the Keilim in the house to become Tamei? Does the size of the neck make any difference?

(b)What is R. Yossi's reason?

(c)In the opinion of ...

1. ... R. Eliezer, it all depends on the location of the dog's mouth. Why, according to him is the house Tahor if its mouth is inside, but Tamei, if it is outside?

2. ... R. Yehudah ben Beseira, the house is Tamei either way. Why is that?

(d)Like whom is the Halachah?

9)

(a)According to R. Yossi, the criterion lies in the location of the Tum'ah. The Keilim in the house will become Tamei as long as the actual Tum'ah is inside the house (irrespective of the size of the neck) ...

(b)... because with regard to hidden Tum'ah, we apply the principle Boka'as ve'Olah ... (see also Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)In the opinion of ...

1. ... R. Eliezer, it all depends on the location of the dog's mouth. According to him, the house is Tahor if its mouth is inside, but Tamei, if it is outside - because we generally assume that Tum'ah leaves the body via the back passage, and not via the mouth.

2. ... R. Yehudah ben Beseira, the house is Tamei either way - because sometimes (when it vomits) it tends to come out of the body via the mouth.

(d)The Halachah however - is like R. Yossi.

10)

(a)How long must the flesh have been inside the dog's body, for Keilim that are brought into the house to still become Tamei on account of it?

(b)According to R. Shimon, the equivalent Shi'ur by a bird or a fish (as opposed to a dog) that swallowed a k'Zayis Meis is the time it would take for the k'Zayis Meis to fall into a fire and get burned. What does R. Yehudah ben Beseira say?

(c)What is the Shi'ur Ikul of other animals (see Tiferes Yisrael)?

(d)Why is the Shi'ur Ikul (of digestion) of a dog longer than that of other animals?

(e)Like whom is the Halachah?

10)

(a)For Keilim that are brought into the house to still become Tamei on account of it, the Tum'ah must have been inside the dog's body - for less than three days (otherwise, the Meis is considered digested).

(b)According to R. Shimon, the equivalent Shi'ur by a bird or a fish that swallowed a k'Zayis Meis, is the time it would take for the k'Zayis Meis to fall into a fire and get burned. R. Yehudah ben Beseira gives the Shi'ur as - Me'eis Le'eis (twenty-four hours.

(c)The Shi'ur Ikul (the time it takes to digest) of other animals - is the same as that of birds and fish.

(d)The Shi'ur Ikul of a dog lasts longer than that of other animals - to compensate the fact that it is always short of food.

(e)The Halachah is - like R. Yehudah ben Beseira.

Mishnah 8

11)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses a Chadus in a room inside which is a lamp. What is a Chadus (i.e. a Dus)?

(b)What does the Tana say about the Perach (the wide top of the lamp)?

(c)On what condition do Beis Shamai say that if the Perach is covered by a Chefishah (a basket that is generally used to cover olives in the vat), the Dus is Tahor?

(e)Seeing as the Menorah is Tamei, why is the Chadus Tahor? Why is it not Metamei it (because of 'Cherev Harei Hu ke'Chalal')?

11)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses a Chadus (alias a Dus) in a room inside which is a lamp. A Chadus is - an enclosure (which is the equivalent of a pit above ground level).

(b)The Tana says that the Perach (the wide top of the lamp) - protrudes above the top of the Chadus.

(c)Beis Shamai rule that if the Perach is covered by a Chefishah (a basket that is generally used to cover olives in the vat), the Chadus is Tahor - provided the Chefishah is placed in such a way that if the Menorah were to be removed, it would land on top of the Chadus (and not inside it).

(d)The Menorah however - is Tamei.

(e)Even though the Menorah is Tamei, the Chadus remains Tahor (and we do not apply the principle Cherev harei Hu ke'Chalal) - because the Mishnah is speaking where the source of Tum'ah is a sword that touched a Meis, which is Metamei the room and the Menorah, but is not Metamei Keilim like itself (as we learned in the first Perek [see also Tos. Yom-Tov]).

12)

(a)What do Beis Hillel say?

(b)Why is that?

(c)On what condition will they both agree that even the Keilim in the Chadus are Tamei as well?

12)

(a)Beis Hillel - declare the Menorah Tahor too (see Tos. Yom-Tov) ...

(b)... because we go after the Menorah (which is inside the Chadus), and not after the Perach (see also Mishnah Achronah).

(c)They both agree however, that even the Keilim in the Chadus are Tamei - if removing the Menorah would cause the Chafishah to fall into the Chadus.

Mishnah 9

13)

(a)What does the Tana say about Keilim that are lying between the edge of the Chefishah and the edge of the Chadus (see Eliyah Rabah)?

(b)If there is a k'Zayis Meis inside the Chadus, he rules that the room is Tamei. Why is that?

13)

(a)The Tana - declares Tahor all Keilim that are lying between the edge of the Chefishah and the edge of the Chadus (see Tos. Yom-Tov & Eliyah Rabah), right down to the center of the earth (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)If there is a k'Zayis Meis inside the Chadus however, he rules that the room is Tamei - because Tzamid Pasil does not help to prevent Tum'ah inside a K'li from being Metamei Keilim that are in the room (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

14)

(a)If the Tum'ah is in the room, on what condition does the Mishnah render the Keilim in the walls Tahor?

(b)Why is that?

(c)Why are the Keilim not Tahor in any case, seeing as they are covered by a Chefishah?

(d)And when will the Keilim remain Tahor either way?

14)

(a)If the Tum'ah is in the room, the Mishnah renders the Keilim in the walls Tahor - provided they are lying in an area that measures a Tefach by a Tefach and that is a Tefach high ...

(b)... because then they are protected from Tum'ah (like the covered gutter in Perek 3, Mishnah 7). Otherwise, they are Tamei.

(c)The Keilim are not Tahor in any case seeing as they are covered by a Chefishah - because the Tana is now speaking about a case where there is no Chefishah (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)The Keilim will remain Tahor either way - there where the walls of the Chadus extend beyond the walls of the room (in which case the Keilim are located outside the room [see Tiferes Yisrael]).