Mishnah 1

1)

1)

(a)The minimum size of a Baheres is a k'G'ris - which is half a large, square (see Tiferes Yisrael) bean from Kilki.

(b)If the Baheres is round - it must be large enough to contain a square one.

(c)The above is the equivalent to nine lentils grains. Four hairs on the head are equivalent to one lentil (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)The Mishnah therefore concludes - that the minimum size of a Baheres is thirty-six hairs (see first Tos. Yom-Tov & Tiferes Yisrael).

(a)The minimum size of a Baheres is a ki'G'ris. What exactly, is a G'ris?

(b)What if the Baheres is round and not square?

(c)The above is the equivalent to nine lentils. How many hairs on the head are equivalent to one lentil?

(d)What does the Mishnah therefore conclude? What, measured in hairs on the head, is the minimum size of a Baheres?

Mishnah 2

2)

(a)What does the Tana say in a case where a Baheres the size of a G'ris containing a Michyah the size of a lentil, if the Baheres ...

1. ... expanded?

2. ... diminished?

(b)What is the reason for the former ruling?

(c)And what does the Tana say in a case where the Michyah ...

1. ... expanded?

2. ... diminished?

(d)What is the reason for the former ruling?

2)

(a)The Tana rules in a case where a Baheres the size of a G'ris containing a Michyah the size of a lentil, if the Baheres ...

1. ... expanded - it is Tamei.

2. ... grew smaller - it is Tahor.

(b)The reason for the former ruling is - because of Pisyon (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)If the Michyah ...

1. ... expanded - the Tana rules that it is Tahor (see Tos. Yom-Tov), and the same applies to where it ...

2. ... diminished (see Tiferes Yisrael & Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)The reason for the former ruling is - because the Michyah must be Mevutzeres (surrounded by at least a k'Adashah of Baheres on all sides).

Mishnah 3

3)

(a)What does the Mishnah say in a case where a Baheres measuring a G'ris containing a Michyah that is smaller than a k'Adashah ...

1. ... expands? To what extent must it expand?

2. ... diminishes?

(b)What if, in the latter case, the Michyah is the size of a lentil?

(c)And what does the Tana say if the Michyah expands?

3)

(a)The Mishnah rules in a case where a Baheres measuring a G'ris containing a Michyah that is smaller than a k'Adashah ...

1. ... expands to the size of a k'Adashah - that it is Tamei.

2. ... diminishes - that it is Tahor ...

(b)... even if the Michyah is the size of a lentil.

(c)If the Michyah expands - the Tana rules that it is Tamei.

4)

(a)In the event that the Michyah diminishes, R. Meir declares it Tamei. What do the Chachamim say?

(b)What is the basis of their Machlokes?

(c)Like whom is the Halachah?

4)

(a)In the event that the Michyah diminishes, R. Meir declares it Tamei. According to the Chachamim - it is Tahor (see Tos. Yom-Tov) ...

(b)... because spreading inwards is not considered Pisyon (see Tos. Yom-Tov) - whereas R. Meir holds that it is.

(c)The Halachah - is like the Chachamim.

Mishnah 4

5)

(a)What does the Tana say about a Baheres that is larger than a G'ris that contains a Michyah that is larger than an Adashah?

(b)On what condition will it be Tamei if they both diminish?

5)

(a)The Tana rules that in a case where a Baheres that is larger than a G'ris contains a Michyah that is larger than an Adashah - if either of them either expand or diminish, they are Tamei Muchlat.

(b)They will only be Tamei if they both diminish - provided they retain the required Shi'ur Tum'ah (see also Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 5

6)

(a)What does the Tana Kama rule with regard to a Baheres the size of a G'ris that is surrounded by a thin strip of Michyah the size of an Adashah, that is surrounded in turn by a Baheres the size of a G'ris?

(b)What does R. Yossi say with regard to the second ruling?

(c)Why is that?

6)

(a)With regard to a Baheres the size of a G'ris that is surrounded by a thin strip of Michyah the size of an Adashah, that is surrounded in turn by a Baheres the size of a G'ris, the Tana Kama declares - the inner Baheres Tamei Musgar (since it has no Michyah inside it), and the outer one, Tamei Muchlat.

(b)According to R. Yossi - the Michyah is not a Siman Tum'ah regarding the outer Baheres ...

(c)... since the inner Baheres does not combine with the outer one, and for the Michyah to be a Siman Tum'ah, it must be surrounded by the Baheres on all sides.

7)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses the above case where the Michyah diminishes (i.e. the Baheres expands to cover part of it). What does Raban Gamliel say if ...

1. ... the inner Baheres expands to cover part or all of the Michyah that adjoins it?

2. ... the outer Baheres expands to cover part or all of the Michyah that adjoins it?

(b)What does R. Akiva hold?

(c)Why is that?

(d)Like whom is the Halachah?

7)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses the above case where the Michyah diminishes (i.e. the Baheres expands to cover part of it). Raban Gamliel maintains that if ...

1. ... the inner Baheres expands to cover part or all of the Michyah that adjoins it - it is Tamei, because of Pisyon.

2. ... the outer Baheres expands to cover part of the Michyah that adjoins it - it is Tahor, because Pisyon is only Tamei when it spreads outwards, but not inwards (as we have already learned).

(b)According to R. Akiva - it is Tahor anyway ...

(c)... because in his opinion - either way, spreading into the adjoining Michyah is not considered Pisyon (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)The Halachah is - like R. Akiva.

Mishnah 6

8)

(a)We just learned that if the Michyah (between two Beharos) diminishes (i.e. the outer Baheres spreads to cover part of it), then the outer Baheres is Tahor. What does he say in the event that the Michyah that diminishes, initially measured more than a ke'G'ris?

(b)Like whom is the Halachah?

8)

(a)We just learned that if the Michyah (between two Beharos) diminishes (i.e. the outer Baheres spreads to cover part of it), then the outer Baheres is Tahor. R. Shimon qualifies this, confining it to where the Michyah initially measured exactly a ke'G'ris. In the event that it measures more (and a ke'G'ris remains) - then the outer Baheres is Tamei Muchlat too (because of the Michyah).

(b)The Halachah however - is like the Chachamim.

9)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses a Bohak. What is a 'Bohak'?

(b)What does the Tana about a case where a Bohak less than a k'Adashah is situated between two Beharos, and one of them spreads into it?

(c)Why must the Bohak measure less than a k'Adashah?

9)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses a Bohak - the name of a Tahor plague.

(b)In a case where a Bohak less than a k'Adashah is situated between two Beharos, and one of them spreads into it - if it is the inner one that spread, the Tana declares it Tamei because of Pisyon (see Tos. Yom-Tov), but not if it is the outer one (as we already learned [see also Tos. Yom-Tov]).

(c)The Bohak must measure less than a k'Adashah - because otherwise, it would have Tamei in the form of a Michyah (which does not require any specific Mar'eh [see Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Hayah Bohak ... ']).

Mishnah 7

10)

(a)How many tips of limbs are there that do not classify as 'Michyah' (see Tos. Yom-Tov)?

(b)How do we learn this from the Pasuk "ve'Ra'ahu ha'Kohen"?

(c)What are the first twenty on the list?

(d)Counting the tips of the two ears as one, what are the remaining four (incorporating the limbs of both a man and a woman)?

10)

(a)There are - twenty-four tips of limbs that do not classify as 'Michyah' (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)We learn this from the Pasuk "ve'Ra'ahu ha'Kohen" - which implies that the Kohen must be able to see the entire Nega including the Michyah at one and the same time.

(c)The first twenty on the list are - the tips of the fingers and the toes.

(d)Counting the tips of the two ears as one, the remaining four are the tip of - 1. the ears, 2. the nose, 3. The Milah ('Rosh ha'Geviyah' [see Tos. Yom-Tov]), 4. A woman's nipples (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

11)

(a)According to the R. Yehudah, there are twenty-four on a man's body alone. What is the extra one not listed by the Tana Kama?

(b)Besides warts, R. Eliezer adds Dildulin (or Tiltulin) to the list. What are ...

1. ... 'Dildulin'?

2. ... 'Tiltulin'?

(c)Like whom is the Halachah?

11)

(a)According to the R. Yehudah, there are twenty-four on a man's body alone. The extra one not listed by the Tana Kama is - the tips of a man's nipples.

(b)Besides warts, R. Eliezer adds Dildulin (or Tiltulin) to the list.

1. ... 'Dildulin' are - a piece of flesh that came loose.

2. ... 'Tiltulin' - a mound of flesh.

(c)The Halachah is - like the Chachamim.

Mishnah 8

12)

(a)What does the Mishnah say about a Nega that appears inside a person's eye, ear, nose or mouth?

(b)Will the same apply to the other three Mar'os Nega'im?

(c)How do we learn this from the Pasuk "ve'Hayah be'Or Besaro"?

12)

(a)The Mishnah rules - that a Nega that appears inside a person's eye, ear, nose or mouth (see Tos. Yom-Tov) is Tahor ...

(b)... and the same applies to the other three Mar'os Nega'im.

(c)We learn this from the Pasuk "ve'Hayah be'Or Besaro" - and these areas are not considered 'Or Basar'.

13)

(a)If folds in the skin are also not subject to Nega'im, why does the Tana find it necessary to add folds in the neck?

(b)In what posture does the Tana include in the list the folds ...

1. ... under a a woman's breast?

2. ... under the armpit?

(c)What does he say about a Baheres on ...

1. ... the sole of man's foot or on his beard?

2. ... a man's head and on his nail?

13)

(a)Even though folds in the skin are also not subject to Nega'im, the Tana finds it necessary to add folds in the neck - to teach us that the Reisha is referring to folds in other parts of the body, which we otherwise have thought are like the rest of the body, and the Reisha is speaking specifically about the folds in the neck (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)The Tana includes in the list the folds ...

1. ... under a woman's breast - as she sits whilst feeding her baby.

2. ... under a man's armpit - as it appears whilst he is picking olives.

(c)And he further includes in the list a Baheres on ...

1. ... the sole of man's foot or on his beard, on ...

2. ... his head or on his nail.

14)

(a)The last four items on the list are Sh'chin, Michvah, Kedach and Mordin. Why is a Baheres on a Sh'chin or Michvah not a Siman Tum'ah?

(b)What is ...

1. ... 'Kedach'?

2. ... 'Mordin'?

(c)What Shi'ur is required for them to be considered healed, and to fall under the category of regular skin?

(d)Alternatively, others refer to the latter as 'Morerin'. What is the source of the word ...

1. ... 'Mordin'?

2. ... 'Morerin'?

14)

(a)The last four items on the list are Sh'chin, Michvah, Kedach and Mordin. A Baheres on a Sh'chin or Michvah not a Siman Tum'ah - because in both cases, the Torah writes specifically, that the wound has cured.

(b)A ...

1. ... 'Kedach' is - a Sh'chin or a Michvah that come from an external source, the former from a knock by a stone, wood or by being burned naturally hot materials; the latter from a burn by something that has been heated by fire (but not by the fire itself) see Tos. Yom-Tov.

2. ... 'Mordin' is - any of the above three (Sh'chin, Michvah and Kedach) that has not yet properly healed (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)The Shi'ur that is required for it to be considered healed, and to fall under the category of regular skin - is if it has grown a crust the thickness of a garlic peal.

(d)Alternatively, others refer to the latter as 'Morerin'. The source of the word ...

1. ... 'Mordin' is - 'Mored' meaning a rebel (because it refuses to heal).

2. ... 'Morerin' is - the Pasuk in Shemini (with regard to a Zav) "Rar Besaro" (his flesh is exuding).

15)

(a)Will the above areas combine with half a Shi'ur of Baheres on the skin that adjoins them?

(b)Do they qualify as ...

1. ... Pisyon?

2. ... Michyah?

(c)What might Michyah mean besides where any of the above appear in the middle of a regular Nega?

15)

(a)The above areas will not combine with half a Shi'ur of Baheres on the skin that adjoins them (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)Nor do they qualify as ...

1. ... Pisyon or ...

2. ... Michyah.

(c)Besides where any of the above appear in the middle of a regular Nega, Michyah might mean - that they appear after the Nega initially spread to the entire body (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

16)

(a)What if a Metzora turns completely white except for any of the above? Will they prevent him from being declared Tahor?

(b)How do we learn this from the Pasuk "ve'Chis'sah ha'Tzara'as es Kol Or ha'Nega"?

16)

(a)If a Metzora turns completely white except for any of the above - they will not prevent him from being declared Tahor.

(b)We learn this from the Pasuk "ve'Chis'sah ha'Tzara'as es Kol Or ha'Nega" - which implies that only if skin that is subject to Nega'im remains will it render him Tamei, but not any of the above.

17)

(a)Under what circumstances will the Din of Baheres apply to ...

1. ... the head and the beard?

2. ... Sh'chin and Michvah?

3. ... a location where there is a fold in the skin?

1. ... combining with the skin next to them to make up the Shi'ur?

2. ... becoming subject to Pisyon or Michyah?

(c)What is the reason for this latter ruling?

17)

(a)The Din of Baheres will apply to ...

1. ... the head and the beard - in an area which has become bald (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

2. ... Sh'chin and Michvah - if a layer of ordinary skin grew on them.

3. ... a location where there is a fold in the skin - should the fold straighten out.

(b)Apart from the latter case, they will not ...

1. ... combine with the skin next to them to make up the Shi'ur, nor will they ...

2. ... become subject to Pisyon or Michyah ...

(c)... because the former two (which are known as 'Nesakin') are only subject to two yellow hairs or Pisyon, and the latter two, to two white hairs or Pisyon (see also Tos. Yom-Tov).

18)

(a)What does the Mishnah say with regard to the above preventing a person whose Nega spread to the entire body except for them from becoming Tamei?

(b)On what condition is the location of the head and the beard subject to the four Mar'os Nega'im like ordinary skin?

(c)And the Tana issues the same ruling with regard to Dildulin she'be'Rosh ve'she'be'Zakan'. What are 'Dildulin'?

(d)This ruling has three ramifications: 1. That they prevent a Nega that spreads to the entire body except for them, from being Tahor; 2. They are eligible to be deemed Pisyon. What is the third?

18)

(a)The Mishnah rules that the above - do prevent a person whose Nega spread to the entire body except for them from becoming Tamei.

(b)The location of the head and the beard subject to the four Mar'os Nega'im like ordinary skin - as long as hair has not yet grown there.

(c)And the Tana issues the same ruling with regard to Dildulin she'be'Rosh ve'she'be'Zakan - mounds of flesh (like pimples) on which hair does not grow (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)This ruling has three ramifications: 1. They prevent a Nega that spreads to the entire body except for them, from being Tahor; 2. They are eligible to be deemed Pisyon - 3. They combine to make up the Shi'ur k'G'ris (see also Tos Yom-Tov).