Mishnah 1

1)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses vessels made of wood, leather, bone and glass. What do they all have in common?

(b)Seeing as we already learned this in the second Perek, why does the Tana find it necessary to repeat it?

(c)In the event that they break, they become Tahor. What is their status once they have been repaired?

1)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses vessels made of wood, leather, bone and glass - which are all Tahor if they are flat (see Tos. Yom Tov), but subject to Tum'ah if they are receptacles.

(b)Even though we already learned this in the second Perek, the Tana repeats it here - because he now wants to start discussing vessels made of wood and leather.

(c)In the event that they break, they become Tahor. Once they have been repaired - they again become subject to Tum'ah, but only from then on (not retroactively).

2)

(a)Heading the list of large vessels are Shidah, Teivah and Migdal. A Shidah (see also Tos. Chadashim) and a Migdal are two kids of cupboards. What is a Teivah?

(b)They must hold forty Sa'ah (the minimum size of a Mikvah) of liquid in order to be Tahor. How much solids (produce, seeds and fruit) must they hold?

(c)What is the difference between the two amounts?

(d)Why are they not equal?

2)

(a)Heading the list of large vessels are Shidah, Teivah and Migdal. A Shidah (see also Tos. Chadashim) and a Migdal are two kids of cupboards, and a Teivah - a banker's table (probably made in the form of a counter).

(b)They must hold forty Sa'ah (there are thirty Sa'ah in a Kur) of liquid in order to be Tahor - and two Kur of solids (produce, seeds and fruit).

(c)Two Kur - is the equivalent of sixty Sa'ah (one third more than forty ...

(d)... because, allowing for the Godesh (the heap) an average size receptacle (see Tos. Yom Tov) will hold one third more of solids than of liquids.

3)

(a)The above list incorporates a beehive made of straw or of reeds and a Bor Sefinah Alexandris. What is a Bor Sefinah Aleksandris?

(b)What second condition (apart from their size) is required to render all of these Tamei?

(c)What does R. Meir say about all other vessels?

3)

(a)The above list incorporates a beehive made of straw or of reeds and a Bor Sefinah Alexandris - a wooden water-tank specifically made to place in large (Alexandrian ships) when going on long journeys, since sea-water is unfit to drink.

(b)Apart from their size, the above vessels - must also possess bases, to be able to stand by themselves (otherwise, they are obviously meant to be transported and are therefore subject to Tum'ah, in spite of their size).

(c)All other vessels, says R. Meir - are subject to Tum'ah whether they are flat or not (see Tos. Yom Tov).

4)

(a)R. Yehudah declares Tamei large Dardur Agalah (large wooden barrels that are lugged around [both full and empty] on carts), and Kustos Melachim, in spite of their size. What are 'Kustos Melachim'?

(b)He adds to this large tanners' pots (Areivas ha'Abdanin), water-tanks of small ships and coffins. What is a tanner's pot used for?

(c)Bearing in mind that these vessels are too large to carry, why does R. Yehudah declare them Tamei?

(d)What does he say about all other vessels?

4)

(a)R. Yehudah declares Tamei large Dardur Agalah (large wooden barrels that are lugged around [both full and empty] on carts), and Kustos Melachim, in spite of their size. Kustos Melachim are - large wooden cupboards, divided into compartments (containing food and drink and utensils) that were attached to the royal wagons, for use when the king traveled.

(b)He adds to this large tanners' pots (Areivas ha'Abdanin), water-tanks of small ships and coffins. A tanner's pot is used for - soaking skins.

(c)Despite the fact that these vessels are too large to carry, R. Yehudah declares them Tamei - because it is customary to carry them even when they are full.

(d)All other vessels - he declares Tamei only if they hold less than forty Sa'ah (of liquid).

5)

(a)The Tana concludes that R. Meir and R. Yehudah are arguing over regular pots ('Areivas Ba'alei-Batim' [which hold forty Sa'ah of liquids]). How does he extrapolate this from the Machlokes?

(b)What does each one then say about it?

5)

(a)The Tana concludes that R. Meir and R. Yehudah are arguing over regular pots ('Areivas Ba'alei-Batim' [which hold forty Sa'ah of liquids]) - since R. Meir has not included them in his list of what is Tahor, and R. Yehudah in his list of things that are Tamei. Consequently ...

(b)... R. Meir must hold that they are Tamei, and R. Yehudah, that they are Tahor.

Mishnah 2

6)

(a)What distinction does the Tana draw between Arubos (or Areivos [kneading troughs]) of bakers and those of Ba'alei Batim?

(b)Why ought the former to be Tahor, too?

(c)Then why are they Tamei?

(d)On what condition will Arubos of Ba'alei Batim also become subject to Tum'ah?

6)

(a)The Tana declares Arubos (or Areivos [kneading troughs]) of bakers - Tamei, and those of Ba'alei Batim - Tahor.

(b)The former ought to be Tahor, too - because they are 'P'shutei Klei Etz.

(c)The Chachamim declared then Tamei however - because they are nicely shaped like Keilim (see Tos. Yom Tov).

(d)Arubos of Ba'alei Batim will also become subject to Tum'ah - if they are painted (with a red paint or with safran).

7)

(a)R. Eliezer declares a baker's tray that has been fixed to the wall, Tahor. What do the Chachamim say?

(b)What must the tray be made out of?

(c)Why is that?

7)

(a)R. Eliezer declares a baker's tray that has been fixed to the wall, Tahor. According to the Chachamim - it is Tamei (see Tiferes Yisrael).

(b)The tray must be made out of metal ...

(c)... because if was made out of wood, it would be Tahor (since, even before it was fixed to the wall, it was P'shutei Klei Eitz and Tamei only mi'de'Rabbanan).

8)

(a)What distinction does the Mishnah draw between a S'rod (a small board, like 'Seridah' that was discussed in earlier Perakim [see Tos. Yom-Tov]) of bakers and one of Ba'alei-Batim?

(b)On what condition will even the latter be Tamei?

(c)What will be the Din if, after forming the rim around the board, one of the sides breaks?

8)

(a)The Mishnah declares a S'rod (a small board, like 'Seridah' that was discussed in earlier Perakim [see Tos. Yom Tov]) of bakers - Tamei, and one of Ba'alei-Batim - Tahor unless a rim is added to it on all four sides.

(b)Even the latter will be Tamei however - if one makes a rim around it.

(c)If, after forming the rim around the board, one of the sides breaks - it reverts to its previous status (of Taharah).

9)

(a)R. Shimon disagrees with the Tana Kama. What does he say about a S'rod of Ba'alei-Batim that one arranges for cutting the dough?

(b)Why is that? In which point does he argue with the Tana Kama?

(c)Like whom is the Halachah?

(d)The Tana concludes 've'Chen ha'Ma'aroch Tamei' (see Tos. Yom-Tov). What is a Ma'aroch (see Tiferes Yisrael)?

9)

(a)R. Shimon declares a S'rod of Ba'alei-Batim that one arranges for cutting the dough, Tamei - even without adding a rim (Tos. Yom Tov) ...

(b)... because in his opinion (unlike that of the Tana Kama) - the reason that a baker's S'rod is Tamei is because the dough is cut on it and it is taken straight to the oven.

(c)The Halachah is - like the Chachamim.

(d)The Tana concludes 've'Chen ha'Ma'aroch Tamei' (see Tos. Yom Tov). A Ma'aroch is - either a board on which the bread is shaped before taking it to the oven or a round stick one Amah long, with which one rolls the dough flat (Tiferes Yisrael).

Mishnah 3

10)

(a)The Mishnah declares Tahor Yam Nafah shel Salasin. What is Yam Nafah shel Salasin?

(b)Why is it called Yam?

(c)R. Yehudah discusses Yam Nafah shel Godeles. What is Yam Nafah shel Godeles? How does it differ from Yam Nafah shel Salasin?

(d)What does he say about it?

(e)Like whom is the Halachah?

10)

(a)The Mishnah declares Tahor Yam Nafah shel Salasin - a cloth woven out of hair (see Tos. Yom Tov) which is used to sift the flour from the bran.

(b)It is called Yam - because it is surrounded by a crown-like vessel, like the sea is surrounded by dry land.

(c)R. Yehudah discusses Yam Nafah shel Godeles - a large sieve similar to Yam Nafah shel Salasin, only with a wooden bench fixed to it, on which a young girl would sit whilst her hair was being plaited and arranged (to prevent her hair and dust ... from her head from falling on the floor.

(d)He ruled that - it is subject to Tum'as Moshav (see Tiferes Yisrael).

(e)The Halachah is - like R. Yehudah (ibid.).

Mishnah 4

11)

(a)R. Meir declares all (detachable) handles Tamei but for two exceptions. Which two?

(b)According to the Chachamim however, they are all Tahor but for four. The first of the exceptions is the handle of a flour-sifter's sieve (that we discussed in the previous Mishnah), the second, that of a barn-sieve. What is a barn-sieve?

(c)What is its handle sometimes used for?

11)

(a)R. Meir declares all (detachable) handles Tamei (see Tos. Yom Tov) but for two exceptions - that of a flour-sifter and that of a Balabos' sieve (ibid.).

(b)According to the Chachamim however, they are all Tahor but for four. The first of the exceptions is the handle of a flour-sifter's sieve (that we discussed in the previous Mishnah), the second, that of a barn-sieve - a large sieve placed on two wooden props, used (possibly by two people) to let through the wheat and to hold back the chaff.

(c)Its handle is sometimes used - to support one's hands when the sifters become tired whilst sifting.

12)

(a)The third of the Tamei handles is that of a hand-sickle, and the fourth, that of a Makal ha'Balashin. What is a Makal ha'Balashin?

(b)Why is it so-called? What is the root of Balashin?

(c)What is the guiding principle that explains why all handles are Tahor, with the above four exceptions?

12)

(a)The third of the Tamei handles is the handle of a hand-sickle, and the fourth, that of a Makal ha'Balashin - a stick that is used to test the contents of vessels, to check whether they contain items that are subject to taxation ...

(b)... so-called because Balashin means serchers (the Targom of "Vayechapes" - at the end of Miketz - is 'u'Balash').

(c)The principle that explains why all handles are Tahor, apart from the above four - is yIf they assist in using the K'li, they are Tamei, and if not, they are Tahor.

Mishnah 5

13)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses a Rachas. What is a Rachas?

(b)What is a ...

1. ... Rachas shel Gerusos]?

2. ... Rachas shel Otazar]?

(c)And he draws the same distinction between a Rachas shel Gitos and a Rachas shel G'ranos. What is each of these used for?

(d)What is the guiding principle to distinguish between the two that are Tamei and the two that are Tahor?

13)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses a Rachas - a shovel.

(b)A ...

1. ... Rachas shel Gerusos is - a shovel used for winnowing beans, with which the Gerusos would prepare a bean-stew.

2. ... Rachas shel Otzaros is - a shovel with which one collect the grain from the side of the barn.

(c)And he draws the same distinction between a Rachas shel Gitos - which is used to take the pits and the skins out of the wine-press and throw them away, and a Rachas shel G'ranos - which is used to winnow the corn.

(d)The guiding principle to distinguish between the two that are Tamei and the two that are Tahor is that - a shovel that is used to receive is Tamei, whereas one that is used to gather is Tahor (see Tos. Yom Tov DH 'shel G'ranos, Tehorah').

Mishnah 6

14)

(a)What distinction does the Mishnah draw between ordinary harps and the harps of the Levi'im who played on the Duchan?

(b)Why the difference?

(c)And what distinction does the Tana draw between (the seven) ordinary liquids and the liquid of the Beis ha'Mitbachayim (the slaughter area) in the Beis-Hamikdash?

(d)What are the seven liquids that are subject to Tum'ah?

(e)What does the Mashkeh Beis ha'Mitbachayim incorporate?

14)

(a)The Mishnah declares ordinary harps - Tamei, but the harps of the Levi'im who played on the Duchan - Tahor ...

(b)... because the former have a cavity (see Tiferes Yisrael) for people to place coins whilst the minstrels play, whereas the latter, which were only used in the Beis-Hamikdash, did not (see Tiferes Yisrael).

(c)Likewise, the Tana - declares (the seven) ordinary liquids, Tamei, but the liquid of the Beis ha'Mitbachayim (the slaughter area) in the Beis-Hamikdash) - Tahor (both from Tum'ah and from rendering food ready to become Tamei).

(d)The seven liquids that are subject to Tum'ah are - water, wine, olive-oil, honey, milk,blood and dew.

(e)The Mashkeh Beis ha'Mitbachayim incorporate - water and blood.

15)

(a)The Chachamim decreed Tum'ah on all Sifrei Kodesh, except for one. Which one?

(b)Why did they ...

1. ... decree Tum'ah on Sifrei Kodesh?

2. ... preclude the Sefer-Torah in the Azarah from the decree?

(c)The Mishnah declares a Markof, Tahor. What is a Markof?

15)

(a)The Chachamim decreed Tum'ah on all Sifrei Kodesh - except for the Sefer-Torah in the Azarah (from which the Kohen Gadol would Lein on Yom Kippur and the king during Hakhel [Tiferes Yisrael]).

(b)They ...

1. ... decreed Tum'ah on Sifrei Kodesh - because the Kohanim were placing their Terumah beside it for safekeeping, and ythe mice which came to eat the Terumah, ruined the Sefarim too.

2. ... precluded the Sefer-Torah in the Azarah from the decree - because, due to its importance, they would be careful not to do that.

(c)The Mishnah declares Tahor a Markof - a wooden horse on which jesters would ride (See Tiferes Yisrael).

16)

(a)The Tana rules that Batnon Nikt'mon and Eirus (all made of wood) are all subject to Tum'ah. What do they all have in common?

(b)Bitnon is a large instrument (on which one bangs [Rambam]) which the player holds next to his stomach. Nikt'mon is one that is shaped like something that is worn by a non-player. What is it?

(c)Eirus on the other hand, is made in the shape of a household article only it is covered with a thin skin. What is it?

(d)Why are all these instruments subject to Tum'ah (see Mishnah Acharonah)?

16)

(a)The Tana rules that Batnon Nikt'mon and Eirus (all made of wood) are all subject to Tum'ah - because they are all instruments.

(b)Bitnon is a large instrument (on which one bangs [Rambam]) which the player holds next to his stomach and 'Nikt'mon' is one that is shaped like a foot (or a leg) that is worn by - a person who is missing a foot (or a leg [see also Tos. Yom Tov]).

(c)Eirus on the other hand, is made in the shape of - a round sieve, only it is covered with a thin skin.

(d)These instruments are all subject to Tum'ah - because they all have receptacles in which to place money (as we learned above in connection with 'Nivlei ha'Sharah' [Mishnah Achronah]).

17)

(a)According to R. Yehudah, Eirus is even Tamei Moshav, because an Ali'as sits on it. What is an Ali'as?

(b)Like whom is the Halachah?

17)

(a)According to R. Yehudah, Eirus is even Tamei Moshav, because an Ali'as - a female mourner (who may sometimes be a Zavah) sits on it (see Tos. Yom Tov).

(b)The Halachah - is like the Tana Kama (see Tos. Yom Tov).

18)

(a)What distinction does the Mishnah draw between a mouse-trap and one of a weasel (or a rat)?

(b)What is the reason for the distinction?

(c)On what is this reasoning based (see Tiferes Yisrael)?

18)

(a)The Mishnah - declares a mouse-trap Tahor, but one of a weasel (or a rat), Tamei ...

(b)... because the former is killed on a flat piece of wood (that is not a receptacle), whereas the latter, is caught in a box-like contraption.

(c)The reason for this distinction is - because, whereas the skin of a weasel is useful and needs to be preserved, that of a mouse is too thin to serve any purpose. Consequently, one traps the former but kills the latter (Tiferes Yisrael).