TA'ANIS 20 - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Reb Aharon Dovid ben Elimelech Shmuel Kornfeld (Muncasz/Israel/New York), who passed away on 3 Av 5761, by his daughter, Shifra, and family. May his love for Torah and for Eretz Yisrael be preserved in all of his descendants.

1)

(a)The sun also stood still for two other Tzadikim (besides Nakdimon ben Gurion). We know that the sun stood still for Yehoshua bin Nun from the Pasuk in Yehoshua "va'Yidom ha'Shamesh, v'Yare'ach Amad" (whilst he chased the fleeing kings whom he had defeated). What do we learn from the 'Gezeirah Shavah' Achel or from Tes in the Pasuk in Devarim "Achel Tes Pachdecha" from the Pasuk in Yehoshua "Achel Gadelcha" (according to Rebbi Elazar or from "b'Yom Teis Hash-m es ha'Emori", according to Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni)?

(b)How does Rebbi Yochanan learn the same thing from the Pasuk in Devarim "Asher Yishme'un Shim'acha, v'Ragzu v'Chalu mi'Panecha"?

1)

(a)The sun also stood still for two other Tzadikim (besides Nakdimon ben Gurion). We know that the sun stood still for Yehoshua from the Pasuk in Yehoshua "va'Yidom ha'Shamesh, v'Yare'ach Amad" (whilst he chased the fleeing kings whom he had defeated). We learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' Achel or from Tes in the Pasuk in Devarim "Achel Tes Pachdecha" from the Pasuk in Yehoshua "Achel Gadelcha" (according to Rebbi Elazar or from "b'Yom Tes Hash-m es ha'Emori", according to Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni) - that it also stood still for Moshe.

(b)Rebbi Yochanan learns the same thing from the Pasuk in Devarim "Asher Yishme'un Shim'acha, v'Ragzu v'Chalu mi'Panecha" - which refers to Moshe, and indicates that he did something that caused the nations of the world to tremble.

2)

(a)What major distinction does Rav draw between the Pasuk in Amos (quoted in our Mishnah) "v'Himtarti al Ir Achas, v'Al Achas Lo Amtir" and the Pasuk in Eichah "Hayesah Yerushalayim l'Nidah Beinehem"?

(b)Rav's Derashah from the Pasuk in Eichah is quoted by Rav Yehudah. According to Rav Yehudah (himself), the following Pesukim all have something in common. What does he Darshen from the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Eichah "Hayesah k'Almanah"?

2. ... in Malachi "v'Gam Ani Nasati Eschem Nivzim u'Shefalim"?

3. ... in Melachim (again in the name of Rav) "v'Hikah Hash-m es Yisrael Ka'asher Yanud ha'Kaneh ba'Mayim"?

(c)Bil'am compared Yisrael to a cedar-tree. What does Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni Amar Rebbi Yonasan learn from the Pasuk in Mishlei "Ne'emanim Pitz'ei Ohev v'Ne'etaros Neshikos Sonei"?

(d)What (besides 'heaped up') does Ne'etaros mean?

2)

(a)Rav draws a major distinction between the Pasuk in Amos (quoted in our Mishnah) "v'Himtarti al Ir Achas, v'Al Achas Lo Amtir" and the Pasuk in Eichah "Hayesah Yerushalayim l'Nidah Beinehem" - inasmuch as, whereas the former is a curse (as we explained in our Mishnah), the latter is a Berachah, because it contains the promising news that Yerushalayim will once again regain her former status, like a Nidah becomes permitted once again to her husband.

(b)Rav's Derashah from the Pasuk in Eichah is quoted by Rav Yehudah. According to Rav Yehudah (himself), the following Pesukim all contain a Berachah. He Darshens from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Hayesah ke'Almanah" - "k'Almanah", 'v'Lo Almanah Mamash', because, as we just explained, Yerushalayim will be returned to its former glory.

2. ... "v'Gam Ani Nasati Eschem Nivzim u'Shefalim" - that our captors will consider us too insignificant to appoint us tax-collectors or officers in their army (a wonderful consolation).

3. ... (again in the name of Rav) "v'Hikah Hash-m es Yisrael Ka'asher Yanud ha'Kaneh ba'Mayim" - that Yisrael are like a bamboo in water, which does not succumb to the strongest winds. It bends with the wind and then, when the wind has passed, it straightens itself once more (see also 4a.).

(c)Bil'am compared Yisrael to a cedar-tree. Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeini Amar Rebbi Yonasan learns from the Pasuk in Mishlei "Ne'emanim Pitz'ei Ohev v'Ne'etaros Neshikos Sonei" - that the curses of the Navi Achyah ha'Shiloni (the author of the Pasuk in Melachim - who loved us) are more beneficial to us than the blessings of Bil'am ha'Rasha (who hated us).

(d)Besides 'heaped up' - Ne'etaros also means turned over (from the word 'Asar' [a pitch-fork, which turns over the hay]) (from what appears to be a blessing, into a curse - see 5).

3)

(a)Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni Amar Rebbi Yonasan connects the Pasuk in Mishlei with (the previous Derashah from) the Pasuk in Melachim (which was said by Achyah ha'Shiloni) by pointing out the differences between a bamboo-cane and a cedar. As opposed to a bamboo, a cedar does not grow next to water, and when it is cut down it does not re-grow. What is the third (physical) difference that distinguishes the bamboo from the cedar?

(b)What additional (spiritual) advantage does the bamboo enjoy over the cedar?

(c)Why is the bamboo not blown down by the wind like the cedar is?

(d)Why is it specifically the south-wind that blows down the cedar?

3)

(a)Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni Amar Rebbi Yonasan connects the Pasuk in Mishlei with (the previous Derashah from) the Pasuk in Melachim (said by Achyah ha'Shiloni) by pointing out the differences between a bamboo-cane and a cedar. As opposed to a bamboo, a cedar does not grow next to water, when it is cut down it does not re-grow - and it has many roots.

(b)It enjoys the additional (spiritual) advantage - that the Sofrim would use it to make quills to write Sifrei Torah, Nevi'im and Kesuvim (though it is no longer customary to do so).

(c)The bamboo is not blown down by the wind like the cedar is - because it sways before the wind, rather than stand straight before it (to be broken by it), like the cedar does (teaching us that if one is able to bend before a superior force, one is able to survive).

(d)It is specifically the south-wind that blows down the cedar - because it is the most powerful of all the winds.

4)

(a)How can Rebbi Yonasan say that a cedar does not grow next to water, when the Pasuk in Balak specifically writes "ka'Arazim Alei Mayim?

4)

(a)Rebbi Yonasan says that a cedar does not grow next to water, in spite of the Pasuk, which specifically writes "ka'Arazim Alei Mayim - because it was not Bil'am who said "Alei Mayim" but an angel. (Indeed, this is the case with all the phrases in this particular Berachah, which Bil'am meant as a curse. For example, he meant to say "ki'Nechalim" - which sometimes dry up - but the angel added "Nitayu", as the Pasuk in Ekev testifies "va'Yahafoch Hash-m Lecha es ha'Kelalah li'Verachah").

20b----------------------------------------20b

5)

(a)In an unusually jovial mood, Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon was riding his donkey by the river-bank one day feeling quite pleased with himself, when he came across a very ugly man. What had he done that caused him to feel so jovial (and so proud)?

(b)Besides not returning the man's greeting, what did he say to him?

(c)What was the man's response?

(d)On what condition was the man willing to forgive Rebbi Elazar, after the latter dismounted and begged him for forgiveness?

5)

(a)In an unusually jovial mood, Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon was riding his donkey by the river-bank one day feeling quite pleased with himself - for having learned a lot of Torah, when he came across a very ugly man.

(b)Besides not returning the man's greeting - he said to him 'Empty man, is everybody in your town as ugly as you?' (see Agados Maharsha).

(c)The man responded - by telling Rebbi Elazar to lodge his complaint with the One who created him.

(d)When Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon dismounted and begged him for forgiveness, the man was willing to forgive Rebbi Elazar, but only on condition - that he first went to lodge his complaint, as he had originally requested.

6)

(a)The man followed Rebbi Elazar into town. How did he react when he discovered that the man whom the townspeople were calling 'Rebbe', was none other than the man who had insulted him?

(b)How does the story end? Did he forgive him or not?

(c)What Derashah did Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon subsequently make?

(d)What reward did the bamboo receive for its suppleness?

6)

(a)The man followed Rebbi Elazar into town. When he discovered that the man whom the townspeople were calling 'Rebbe', was none other than the one who had insulted him - he declared that there should not be many like him in Yisrael.

(b)The people begged him to forgive Rebbi Elazar, because he was an extremely learned man - to which he acceded, on condition that he would not repeat what he had done.

(c)Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon subsequently Darshened - that one should be soft (supple) like a bamboo, and not hard like a cedar (by which he meant that one should be humble like a bamboo (which bends) and not proud like a cedar (which stands straight), like he had been; or he might have meant that one should be quick to forgive, and not hard and unyielding like the man whom he insulted.

(d)Due to its suppleness and yielding characteristic - the bamboo merited to be used as a quill to write with it Sifrei Torah, Tefilin and Mezuzos, as we wrote earlier.

7)

(a)We learned in our Mishnah that a town whose walls collapsed in the wind must fast and blow the Shofar. But that is only if the walls are strong, but not if they are weak and due to collapse anyway. Having mentioned 'weak', 'due to collapse' might mean due to its height. What else might it mean?

(b)Rav and Shmuel were very particular not to pass under 'a weak wall in Neherda'a that was not due to fall'. Considering that it was a weak wall, what does 'not due to fall' mean?

(c)Why, on one occasion, was Rav not afraid to walk next to it?

7)

(a)We learned in our Mishnah that a town whose walls collapsed in the wind must fast and blow the Shofar. But that is only if the walls are strong and not due to collapse, but not if they are weak or due to collapse. Having mentioned 'weak', 'due to collapse' might mean due to its height. It might also mean - 'built on the banks of a river', where they are more vulnerable (because the water tends to weaken their foundations).

(b)Rav and Shmuel were very particular not to pass under 'a weak wall in Neherda'a that was not due to fall'. Even though it was a weak wall, they referred to it as 'not due to fall' - because it had remained standing for so long (it was almost as if it had a Chazakah that it would not fall).

(c)On one occasion, Rav was not afraid to walk next to it - because he and Shmuel were in the company of Rav Ada bar Ahavah, who was such a Tzadik that, as long as he was there, they knew that the wall was certain not to collapse.

8)

(a)What did Rav Huna once do to Rav Ada bar Ahavah that made him angry?

(b)Rav Ada's anger was based on his interpretation of the Pasuk in va'Yishlach "Katonti mi'Kol ha'Chasadim umi'Kol ha'Emes". How did he interpret that Pasuk, and what was it that made him angry?

8)

(a)Rav Huna once had some wine stored in a weak house that was due to fall. To enable him to remove the wine without the house collapsing on him, he fetched Rav Ada bar Ahavah, and discussed a Sugya with him until he had removed the entire stock. No sooner had Rav Ada bar Ahavah left the house, than it collapsed.

(b)Rav Ada's anger was based on his interpretation of the Pasuk in va'Yishlach "Katonti mi'Kol ha'Chasadim umi'Kol ha'Emes" - which he interpreted to mean that (even) Yakov Avinu's merits diminished on account of all the kindnesses (incorporating all the miracles) that Hash-m had performed with him. He was therefore angry because he was afraid that he would certainly have lost some of his merits, because of the miracle that had just been performed on account of him.

9)

(a)When they asked Rav Ada bar Ahavah what he had done to merit such long life, he replied with a list of seven points: He said that he had never been cross with his family or walked in front of people who knew more Torah than he did. What did he never do in dirty alleyways?

(b)He never walked four Amos without Torah and without Tefilin (except in dirty alleyways), or slept in the Beis Hamidrash no matter what. The next two things that he did, belonged to Mitzvos between man and man. What were they?

(c)What is the difference between 'ba'Hachinaso' and 'ba'Chanichaso'?

9)

(a)When they asked Rav Ada bar Ahavah what he had done to merit such long life, he replied with a list of seven points: He said that he had never been cross with his family, walked in front of people who knew more Torah than he did - or thought words of Torah in dirty alleyways.

(b)He never walked four Amos without Torah and without Tefilin (except in dirty alleyways), or slept in the Beis Hamidrash no matter what. The next two things that he did, belonged to Mitzvos between man and man - he never rejoiced over another Jew's downfall and he never called a fellow Jew by a derogatory nickname by which others called him ('ba'Hachinaso').

(c)Others had the text 'ba'Chanichaso' (meaning a family nickname - even if it was not derogatory).

10)

(a)When Rava asked Rafram bar Papa to tell him about the good deeds of Rav Huna (this cannot possibly be referring to Rav Huna, the disciple of Rav, who lived some four generations before Rafram) he replied that he could only re-call things that he had done later in life. What did Rav Huna used to do ...

1. ... on every cloudy day?

2. ... every Friday?

(b)Why did he do that?

(c)Why did he not give the vegetables that he had bought ...

1. ... to the poor?

2. ... to the animals? Is it better to throw it away?

(d)He would also place a bottle of water behind the door for anyone to take. Why did he do that?

10)

(a)When Rava asked Rafram bar Papa to tell him about the good deeds of Rav Huna (this cannot possibly be referring to Rav Huna, the disciple of Rav, who lived some four generations before Rafram), he replied that he could only re-call things that he had done later in life.

1. On every cloudy day - Rav Huna would ride around the town where he lived in a golden wagon, and demolish all the weak (and dangerous) walls. If the owner could not afford to re-build it, he would pay for it out of his own pocket.

2. Every Friday - he would buy all the left-over vegetables from the vegetable-gardeners and throw them into the river.

(b)He did that - to encourage them to continue to bring their wares to market to sell in honor of Shabbos. Alternatively, he knew that other people down the river would find them, and put them to good use.

(c)He did not give the vegetables that he had bought ...

1. ... to the poor - because then they would rely on him for their vegetables, and what would they do on a week when there were no leftovers, and they would not discover that until it was too late?

2. ... to the animals - because, in his opinion, one is not permitted to give food that is fit for humans to animals (because it is downgrading human food).

(d)He would also place a bottle of water behind the door for anyone to take - either for people who were thirsty to drink, or for people to wash their hands before eating, to avoid being harmed by Shivsa, the demon who attacks anyone who eats without washing his hands.

11)

(a)The final good deed of Rav Huna was the only one that Rava claimed he could not emulate. What was it?

(b)Why was he unable to emulate it?

11)

(a)The final good deed of Rav Huna was the only one that Rava claimed that he could not emulate - whenever he ate bread, he would open his door wide and invite anyone who wished to come and join him.

(b)The reason that Rava was unable to emulate Rav Huna in this was - because of the many poor people in Mechoza (his hometown [see Agados Maharsha]) who would take up his offer and cause him to go bankrupt.

OTHER D.A.F. RESOURCES
ON THIS DAF