1)

(a)What did the Rabbanan tell Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi about the children who had just come to the Beis-Hamedrash?

(b)How did they Darshen 'Alef Beis' and 'Gimel Daled'?

(c)Why, according to them, does ...

1. ... the leg of the 'Gimel' stretch towards the 'Daled'?

2. ... the leg of the 'Daled' stretch towards the 'Gimel'?

3. ... the face of the Daled turn away from the 'Gimel'?

(d)What do the 'Hey' and the 'Vav' represent?

1)

(a)The Rabbanan told Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi that the children who had just come to the Beis-Hamedrash - and had just wonderful things the likes of which were not even heard in the days of Yehoshua bin Nun.

(b)The children explained 'Alef-Beis, Gimel Daled' - to mean 'Aluf Binah, Gemol Dalim' (Torah and Chesed).

(c)According to them ...

1. ... the leg of the 'Gimel' stretches towards the 'Daled' - because it is the way of someone who performs genuine Chesed to run after the poor man.

2. ... the leg of the 'Daled' stretches towards the 'Gimel' - because the poor man is expected to avail himself to the rich man, to spare him the need to run after him.

3. The face of the Daled turns away from the Gimel - to hint to the rich man that he should give the poor man discreetly, in a manner that either prevents the poor man from knowing who gave him the gift, or the rich man from knowing to whom he is giving - and best of all, from either knowing who the other one is.

(d)The 'Hey' and the 'Vav' represent Hash-m's Name (like 'Ani ve'Ho Hoshi'a Na').

2)

(a)The 'Zayin' and the 'Ches' - stand for 'Zan Oscha' and 'Chan Oscha'. How about the 'Tes', the Yud', the Chaf' and the 'Lamed' stand for?

(b)And how did they explain...

1. ... 'Mem P'suchah u'Mem' S'tumah?

2. ...`'Nun' Kefufah ve'Nun' Peshutah?

3. ... the 'Samech' and the 'Ayin' (besides S'moch Aniyim)?

2)

3)

(a)What is the meaning of ...

1. ... 'Peh' Pasu'ach, 'Peh' Sasum?

2. ... 'Tzadei' Kafuf, 'Tzadei' Pashut? Is this not the same as 'Nun' Kefufah, 'Nun' Peshutah?

(b)What important lesson do we learn from here?

(c)And what did the children Darshen from the Kuf and the Reish? Why does the face of the Reish not face the Kuf, and why does the crown of the Kuf nevertheless lean towards the Reish?

3)

(a)

1. ... 'Peh' Pasu'ach, 'Peh' Sasum - mean an open mouth and a closed one: when he is the greatest person in the town, then he should open his mouth and teach Torah and issue rulings, but when there is someone greater than him, he should show a low profile, and refrain from issuing rulings.

2. ... 'Tzadei' Kafuf, 'Tzadei' Pashut - means that if a Tzadik bends himself in this world, he will be upright in the World to Come (like we explained by 'Ne'eman' Kafuf, 'Ne'eman' Pashut). Even if one has already bent oneself before Hash-m, one should bend oneself still more (as the Mishnah says in Pirkei Avos 'Me'od Me'od Hevei Sh'fal Ru'ach').

(b)We learn from there - that the Torah was given with extreme humility.

(c)The 'Kuf' stands for Kadosh (Hash-m), and the 'Reish' for Rasha. The face of the 'Reish' turns away from the 'Kuf', the children said, because Hash-m does not want to look at the Rasha. Nevertheless, the crown of the Kuf leans towards the Reish - as if Hash-m is saying to him 'Do Teshuvah, and I will tie you a crown like Mine'.

4)

(a)Why does the leg of the Kuf not reach its head?

(b)The Ba'al Teshuvah could crawl underneath the leg of the Kuf and climb into the wide space on its right. We do not however, make him do that, on account of Resh Lakish's D'rashah from the Pasuk in Mishlei "Im le'Leitzim Hu Yalitz, ve'Im la'Anavim Yiten Chen". What does Resh Lakish Darshen from that Pasuk?

(c)'Shin and 'Tav' represent Sheker and Emes. Why are the letters of Sheker consecutive, while those of Emes are far apart, representing the beginning, the middle and the end of the spectrum.

(d)And why do all the letters of Sheker stand on one leg (on a narrow base), while those of Emes stand on a wide base?

4)

(a)The leg of the Kuf not reaching its head, is a message to the Rasha that, if he wants to do Teshuvah, he can come back - via the space between the leg and the head.

(b)The Ba'al Teshuvah could crawl underneath the leg of the Kuf and climb into the wide space on its right. We do not however, make him do that, on account of Resh Lakish's D'rashah from the Pasuk "Im le'Letzim Hu Yeilitz, ve'Im la'Anavim Yiten Chein" - that Hash-m allows those who want to sin to go ahead and do so, but if someone wishes to follow the right path, he receives Divine assistance to come back. Someone who has sinned, will have extreme difficulty in returning via the same path as he dropped out (through the open section on the right-hand side of the Kuf) . So Hash-m assists him by creating a new opening to make it easy for him to return and begin afresh.

(c)'Shin and 'Tav' represent Sheker and Emes. The letters of Sheker are consecutive, whereas those of Emes are spaced far apart - because Sheker is common, whilst Emes is rare (you have to travel far to find it).

(d)All the letters of Sheker stand on one leg (on a narrow base) - because Sheker will not last; whereas those of Emes stand either on two legs or on a wide base - as a sign that it will last.

5)

(a)What is...

1. AT BaSH?

2. ACHaS BeTAGIFetc.?

3. EL, BaM, GaN DaS. (all acronyms)?

(b)What message did Hash-m convey, via these acronyms ...

1. ... to the Resha'im?

2. ... to the Tzadikim?

(c)On what grounds does Hash-m have pity on Yisrael, and does not send them to Gehinom?

5)

(a)

1. AT BaSH - is the acronym of 'Alef'='Tav', 'Beis'='Shin' 'Gimel'='Reish' etc.

2. ACHaS BeTA GIF - is the acronym of 'Alef'='Ches'= 'Samech', 'Beis'='Tes'='Ayin', 'Gimel'='Yud'='Peh', etc.

3. EL, BaM, GaN DaS - is the acronym of 'Alef'='Lamed', 'Beis'='Mem', 'Gimel'='Nun', etc.

(b)Hash-m is telling ...

1. ... the Resha'im that if they abhorred Hash-m, and did not desire him, why should they expect Him to want them, or for His Name to rest on them? And that if they contaminate their bodies and close Hash-m's doors (the Batei K'neses and the Batei Medrash), why should Hash-m have mercy on them and not cut them down.

2. ... the Tzadikim - that if they are ashamed to sin, Hash-m will guard their Souls underneath His throne in the heaven; a partition will separate them from Hash-m's anger, and they will have no need to be afraid of the Satan.

(c)Hash-m has pity on Yisrael, and does not send them to Gehinom - because they do not commit adultery, and because they are innocent and righteous. Therefore, He will lead them to Gan Eden.

6)

(a)Gehinom claims that all the B'nei Sheis belong to him. To whom is he referring?

(b)How does Hash-m counter Gehinom's claim?

6)

(a)Gehinom claims that all the B'nei Sheis - the father of all of mankind, belong to him.

(b)Hash-m counters Gehinom's claim however - by arguing that Yisrael are the children of Yitzchak (see above 89b) and do therefore not deserve to go to Gehinom. He (the Angel in charge of Gehinom), need not worry about being out of a job however, since there are many groups of gentiles to provide him with fodder, to keep his eternal fire aflame.

104b----------------------------------------104b

7)

(a)Our Mishnah now discusses the Melachah of Kosev, obligating someone who writes two letters in one bout of forgetfulness. What does the Tana say about someone who writes with ink, sap, paint, dye, glue or Kankantum?

(b)Is one Chayav for writing two letters ...

1. ... on two walls of a house, or on two pages of a ledger?

2. ... on one's skin?

(c)According to Rebbi Eliezer, someone who scratches letters on to his skin (with a sharp point) is Chayav. What do the Chachamim say?

7)

(a)Our Mishnah now discusses the Melachah of Kosev, obligating someone who writes two letters in one bout of forgetfulness - irrespective of whether one writes with ink, sap, paint, dye, glue or Kankantum (vitriol).

(b)One is Chayav for writing two letters ...

1. ... on two walls of a house, or on two pages of a ledger, provided they are written in such a way that they can be read together (i.e. where the two corners of the house meet, or on the inside edges of the two pages of the ledger).

2. ... on one's skin.

(c)According to Rebbi Eliezer, someone who scratches letters on to his skin (with a sharp point) is Chayav. The Chachamim maintain - that one is Patur.

8)

(a)Why is one Patur for writing with liquids, fruit-juices or Avak Derachim on Shabbos?

(b)What are the two meanings of 'Avak Derachim'?

(c)What does the Tana say about someone who writes ...

1. ... with the pen held in the back of his hand, his toes, his mouth or with the pen held under his arm-pit?

2. ... one letter beside a letter that is already written, or over a written script?

3. ... one letter on the ground and one on the ceiling?

(d)Rebbi Yehoshua ben Beseira declares Chayav someone who writes one letter which is an acronym (such as a 'Kuf' for Kashya). What do the Chachamim say?

8)

(a)One is Patur for writing with liquids, fruit-juices or Avak Derachim on Shabbos - because the writing does not tend to last.

(b)'Avak Derachim' means either that he wrote with dust, or that he wrote in dust.

(c)If someone writes ...

1. ... with the pen held in the back of his hand, his toes, his mouth or with the pen held under his arm-pit - he is not Chayav, because one is not Chayav for performing a Melachah ke'le'Achar Yad.

2. ... beside a written letter or over a written script - he is Patur, because he has not written two new letters.

3. ... one letter on the ground and one on the ceiling - he is Patur, because they cannot be read together.

(d)Rebbi Yehoshua ben Beseira declares Chayav someone who writes one letter which is an acronym (such as a 'Kuf' for Kashya). According to the Chachamim - he is Patur (because he has not written two letters).

9)

(a)We translate 'D'yo', 'Sam' (respectively) as ink and arsenic; and Rabah bar bar Chanah translates 'Sikra' as red (anti-rust) paint. How do we translate 'Kuma', and Rabah bar bar Chama Amar Shmuel, 'Kankantum'?

(b)To explain what the Tana comes to include when he says 'u've'Chol Davar she'Hu Roshem', we cite a Beraisa (in connection with Gittin) 'Kasvo be'Mei Tarya O be'Aftza, Kasher'. What is ...

1. ... 'Mei Tarya'?

2. ... 'Aftza'?

(c)What does Rebbi Chiya in a Beraisa, say about a Get that is written with lead, soot or vitriol?

(d)Why the difference?

9)

(a)We translate 'D'yo', 'Sam' (respectively) as ink and arsenic; and Rabah bar bar Chanah translates 'Sikra' as red (anti-rust) paint - 'Kuma' as - tree-sap, whereas Rabah bar bar Chama Amar Shmuel translates 'Kankantum' as - vitriol.

(b)To explain what the Tana comes to include when he says 'u've'Chol Davar she'Hu Roshem', we cite a Beraisa (in connection with Gittin) 'Kasvo be'Mei Tarya O be'Aftza, Kasher'.

1. 'Mei Tarya' is - a certain type of fruit, or rain-water).

2. ... 'Aftza' is - gall-nuts.

(c)Rebbi Chiya in a Beraisa - disqualifies a Get that is written with lead, soot or vitriol is Patur ...

(d)... because all these do not last, whereas the former do (It is unclear however, how script written with rain-water will last).

10)

(a)Rebbi Eliezer brought a proof from Ben Satda, that people do sometimes write on their skin. What did ben Satda do?

(b)How do the Rabbanan counter Rebbi Eliezer's proof?

10)

(a)Rebbi Eliezer brought a proof from Ben Satda - who transported witchcraft from Egypt, hidden under an incision in his skin (to escape the magicians who strictly forbade such an act), that people do sometimes write on their skin.

(b)The Rabbanan counter Rebbi Eliezer's proof however - by branding ben Satda (who is purported to be none other than Yoshke), as an idiot (meaning that in this instance, he behaved totally irrationally) and one cannot use the deeds of an idiot as a yardstick.

11)

(a)What was the name of ben Satda's ...

1. ... mother?

2. ... mother's husband?

(b)Then who was Pandira?

(c)We reject Rav Chisda's suggestion that Satda was the name of ben Satda's father (because his name was Pandira, as we just explained). Then who was Satda?

11)

(a)The name of the mother of ...

1. ... ben Satda was - Miriam Megadla Neshaya (the women's hairdresser).

2. ... ben Satda's husband was - Papus ben Yehudah?

(b)Pandira was - ben Satda's father (with whom his mother had committed adultery).

(c)We reject Rav Chisda's suggestion that Satda was the name of ben Satda's father (because his name was Pandira, as we just explained). In fact - Satda was his mother, as that is the nickname that the Pumbedisians would give to a woman who went astray.

12)

(a)Why does Rabah bar Rav Huna establish the our Mishnah, which declares someone who writes one letter next to existing writing, Patur, not like Rebbi Eliezer?

(b)What does the Beraisa say about someone who writes the last letter in a Seifer-Torah or who weaves the last thread of a garment?

(c)Rabah bar Rav Huna establishes this like Rebbi Eliezer. How does Rav Ashi reconcile it with the Chachamim?

12)

(a)Rabah bar Rav Huna establishes our Mishnah, which declares someone who writes one letter next to another Patur, not like Rebbi Eliezer - because he declares Chayav someone who weaves even one thread beside threads that have already been woven.

(b)The Beraisa rules that someone who writes the last letter in a Seifer-Torah or who weaves the last thread of a garment - Chayav.

(c)Rabah bar Rav Huna establishes this like Rebbi Eliezer. Rav Ashi however, reconcile it with the Chachamim - who will concede that he is Chayav, since it is the last letter in the Seifer, in which case he is Chayav because of Makeh be'Patish.

13)

(a)Rav Chisda establishes our Mishnah, which declares Patur 'K'sav al-Gabei K'sav', not like Rebbi Yehudah. Rebbi Yehudah discusses a case where a Sofer wrote the four-letter Name of Hash-m; by mistake however, he meant to write Yehudah (only he then omitted the 'Daled'). What is wrong with that?

(b)What does he rule there?

(c)What do the Chachamim say?

(d)What does Rav Chisda now prove from Rebbi Yehudah?

13)

(a)Rav Chisda establishes our Mishnah, which declares Patur 'K'sav al-Gabei K'sav', not like Rebbi Yehudah. Rebbi Yehudah discusses a case where a Sofer wrote the four-letter Name of Hash-m; by mistake however, he meant to write Yehudah (only he then omitted the 'Daled') - which will render the Seifer, Pasul - because the name of Hash-m was not written with the appropriate Kedushah.

(b)Rebbi Yehudah rules there - that he must write over the letters with ink.

(c)According to the Chachamim - the Name of Hash-m is not written properly and it cannot be rectified.

(d)Rav Chisda now extrapolates from Rebbi Yehudah there - that the author of our Mishnah, which does not consider this to be writing (with regard to Shabbos), cannot be Rebbi Yehudah.

14)

(a)What does Rebbi Ami say about someone who writes one letter in Teverya, and one in Tzipori?

(b)Why is that?

(c)How do we reconcile this with our Mishnah, which exempts someone who writes two letters on two walls of a house, which cannot be read together?

14)

(a)Rebbi Ami rules that someone who writes one letter in Teverya, and one in Tzipori - is Chayav ...

(b)... because he says, he has written two letters, which only need to be brought together (since he is speaking when one letter is written on one plank at the edge of one town and the other on another plank at the edge of the other town.

(c)We reconcile this with our Mishnah, which exempts someone who writes two letters on two walls of a house, which cannot be read together, on the grounds that there - the letters still need to be cut out from the walls, whereas here, the two doors can be brought together without cutting anything.

15)

(a)What does the Beraisa mean when it writes 'Higi'ah Os Achas, Chayav'?

(b)What problem do we have with this ruling?

(c)Rav Sheishes answers the Kashya by establishing the Beraisa where he removed the 'roof' of the 'Ches'. What does he mean by that? How does this solve the problem?

(d)Rava's answer is even more radical. What does he say?

15)

(a)When the Beraisa writes 'Higi'ah Os Achas, Chayav', it means - that one is Chayav for merely correcting one letter.

(b)The problem with this ruling is - that if one is Patur for writing an entire letter, how can one be Chayav for merely correcting it?

(c)Rav Sheishes answers the Kashya by establishing the Beraisa where he removed the 'roof' of the 'Ches' - meaning that he now created two 'Zayins' (which, together with the roof, form a 'Ches').

(d)Rava's answer is even more radical. According to him - one is even Chayav for removing the crown of the 'Daled', turning it into a 'Reish', and he is Chayav because he has now rendered the Seifer-Torah, Kasher (like we learned earlier regarding someone who writes the last letter).

16)

(a)The Beraisa declares Chayav someone who means to write one letter (such as a Ches), but by mistake, writes two. What is the case?

(b)What problem do we have with the Beraisa?

(c)How do we reconcile the two Beraisos?

16)

(a)The Beraisa declares Chayav someone who means to write one letter (such as a Ches), but by mistake, writes two - where for example, he wrote two Zayins, meaning to write a 'Ches'.

(b)The problem with the Beraisa is - that another Beraisa rules that he is Patur.

(c)We reconcile the two Beraisos - by establishing the latter where he still had to add the three Tagin (crowns required by a 'Zayin'), whereas the earlier Beraisa speaks where he had written them too.

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