(a) GEMARA - Since no Talmud Bavli was written on the other Mishnayos of Seder Zera'im besides Berachos, those who learn Dafyomi begin Maseches Shabbos, the first Maseches in Mo'ed, immediately after Berachos. Maseches Shabbos is one of the longest Masechtos in the Shas, both in the number of Dafim in the Maseches (157) and in the number of chapters in the Maseches (24). As we wrote in the introduction to Maseches Tamid (I:a) in the name of Rav Reuven Margolis, the Masechtos in each Seder seem to be organized according to their length in terms of numbers of chapters, starting with the longest and concluding with the shortest. In Seder Mo'ed this manifests itself with Maseches Shabbos (24 chapters) being the first one in the Seder. It has been said that the number of chapters in Maseches Shabbos, corresponds to the 24 adornments of a Kallah (see Rashi, Shemos 31:18), illustrating the concept that Shabbos is like a bride -- "Shabbos *Kalah* Malkesa" (Bava Kama 32b).
The order of the Mishnayos in Maseches Shabbos is straightforward and logical. Towards the beginning of the Maseches the Mishnah deals with topics relevant to Friday afternoon close to Minchah time (9b), it then proceeds to deal with topics relevant to the moments right before Shabbos (11a), and then deals with lighting the Shabbos candles (20b), leaving food on top of a stove from before Shabbos (36b) and insulating hot food right before the onset of Shabbos (47b). Afterwards, it returns to a discussion about the laws of Hotza'ah, transferring from one domain to another (which is always relevant right at the onset of Shabbos). It is not until Daf 73a that the Mishnah enumerates the complete list of the 39 Melachos and begins to deal with each of them individually. Maseches Shabbos concludes with the laws relevant to the end of Shabbos, such as walking, towards the end of Shabbos, to the farthest extent of the Shabbos border in order to get an early start on a journey ("Mach'shichin Al ha'Techum") (150-151), and with the laws of taking care of animals on Shabbos (155-156).
The apparent exception to the logical order of the Maseches is the first Mishnah, which deals with laws of transferring from one domain to another. Tosfos, at the beginning of the Maseches, questions this, and gives several explanations why the Maseches begins with that Mishnah. [It is worth noting that the Maharal mi'Prague, in Sefer Gur Aryeh on Maseches Shabbos, explains beautifully why the Maseches begins with a Mishnah that deals with Hotza'ah. Every Melachah that is forbidden on Shabbos is also forbidden on Yom Tov (unless the Melachah is needed for preparation of food or any other YomTov use), except for one -- Hotza'ah (as it says in Maseches Beitzah (12a) and other places that "there is no... Hotza'ah on Yom Tov" at all). If so, it is very appropriate to begin Maseches Shabbos with the Melachah which is exclusive to Shabbos and sets it apart from all other holy days.]
(b) RASHI - The style of Rashi in this Maseches is similar to his style in the rest of Shas. Occasionally, Rashi adds comments concerning the practical application of the Halachah (see, for example, 10b, DH Havah, and 37b, DH v'Rav Sheshes).
(c) TOSFOS - In Maseches Shabbos, almost every Daf until the end of the third Perek (47b) contains in the margins comments from the Rishonim under the title, "Tosfos Yeshanim." From then on, the comments become much less frequent, and they disappear entirely after Daf 61b, at which point it seems that the printer stopped including them. From the style of the Tosfos Yeshanim, it appears that what is printed in our margins are short excerpts from a much larger and more complete work that was probably very much like our Tosfos. The printer included these excerpts in our Maseches here and there, whenever they were relevant to the words of Tosfos. On occasion, the printer even inserted them in the middle of Tosfos, in smaller letters to set them aside from the rest of Tosfos (see, for example, Tosfos on Daf 19a, 21a, 25a, etc. After the end of the third Perek (47b), Tosfos Yeshanim is printed only in this manner).
One who takes careful note of the words of Tosfos in Maseches Shabbos will find that in a number of places, Tosfos contradicts what he writes in another place in the Maseches (compare, for example, Tosfos 12b, DH sh'Ein, with Tosfos 40b, DH v'Chi Teima; 26b, DH Asi, with 27a, DH Nafka, see there in the Maharsha; 54b, DH Mishum, with 58a, DH Lo Tetzei). It could be that the printer inserted into our Tosfos some Diburim or words from the Tosfos Yeshanim without indicating that they were written by another Ba'al ha'Tosfos.
In either case, the comments of the Tosfos Yeshanim appear to be the comments of other Rishonim who were Ba'alei ha'Tosfos.
Please note that our list includes only those works of Rishonim which were written in order of the Dafim of the Maseches. Sometimes we will include commentaries that were written on the Rif as well since they include many important insights on the Maseches itself. Many Rishonim wrote Halachic compilations on the laws of Shabbos that did not follow the order of the Dafim in the Maseches; these are not included in our list.
(1) EARLY COMMENTARIES(a) RABEINU NISIM GA'ON - Lived in the 1000's (d. 1050) in Kirouan, North Africa. (Although referred to as "Gaon," he was actually post-Geonic). His commentary, printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas, provides background information when the Gemara refers to a concept dealt with elsewhere in Shas. Authored the Sefer ha'Mafte'ach, in which he quotes and discusses the sources and for the Gemara's citations, and Megilas Setarim, a small collection of Halachic notes on the Maseches. These were recently reprinted from manuscript with footnotes by Rav David Metzger (1990, Jerusalem; Wagschal).
(b) RABEINU CHANANEL - Rabeinu Chananel ben Chushiel, lived in the 11th century. His father Rabeinu Chushiel, was one of the famous "four captives" (a group of Roshei Yeshivah who were captured by pirates and redeemed separately by communities along the Mediterranean coast). He lived in Kirouan, N. Africa after being redeemed from bondage, and it was there that Rabeinu Chananel was born. His commentary on the Gemara appears in the margins of the Zvilna Shas. The commentary of Rabeinu Chananel on Shabbos was recently reprinted from manuscript and annotated by Rav David Metzger (1990, Jerusalem; Wagschal).
(c) SEFER HA'YASHAR - Rabeinu Yakov ben Meir, known as Rabeinu Tam (from the verse "v'Yakov Ish Tam"), wrote Chidushim on Shabbos which appear in the Chidushim section of his Sefer ha'Yashar. Rabeinu Tam was the son of Rashi's daughter. Along with his two brothers, Rashbam (= Rabeinu Shmuel ben Meir, the oldest of the three) and Rivam (= Rabeinu Yitzchak ben Meir), he was from the first generation of Ba'alei ha'Tosfos. He died in 1171. Sefer ha'Yashar was reprinted based on two original manuscripts, with footnotes, by Rav Shimon Schlesinger (second edition, 1980, Jerusalem).
(2) SPAIN (ARAGON)(a) RAMBAN - Rabeinu Moshe ben Nachman lived in the 1200's (d. 1270) and was a student of the RAMAH (Rabeinu Meir ha'Levi Abulefia). He authored Chidushim on Shabbos as well as the Milchamos Hashem on the Rif. The Ramban's commentary was published with corrections and short annotations by Rav Iser Zalman Meltzer in 5688 (1928). The commentary on Shabbos was printed again from manuscripts, along with corrections and clarifications, by Rav Moshe Herschler in 5733 (1973).
(b) RASHBA - Rabeinu Shlomo (ben Avraham) ben Aderes, d. 1310. The Rashba's primary mentor was Rabeinu Yonah, but he also learned under the Ramban. The Rashba's commentary on Shabbos was first printed in its entirety in the year 5698 (1938). It was recently printed again from manuscript, along with corrections and clarifications, by Mosad ha'Rav Kook (Yerushalayim 1986).
(c) RITVA - Rabeinu Yom Tov ben Avraham Al'ashvili lived in the 1300's and was the a close disciple of the Re'ah and, later, of the Rashba. The commentary to Maseches Shabbos that is printed in the unannotated set of Chidushei ha'Ritva Al ha'Shas has been known to actually be Chidushei ha'*Ran* as early as 1807. (This was also noted by Rav Elchanan Wasserman in his introduction to Kobetz He'oros, and is immediately evident after even a cursory comparison between this commentary and the words of the Ran on the Rif, which are nearly identical in *hundreds* of places.). Even so, until today this version continues to be reprinted under the name of "Chidushei ha'Ritva" in many sets. The authentic version remained in manuscript form until it was published (until the end of the seventh Perek), with notes and annotations, by Rav S. Z. Reichman in 5727 (1967), and later, in its entirety, in the Mosad ha'Rav Kook edition of the Chidushei ha'Ritva with annotations by Rav Moshe Goldstein (Yerushalayim, 1990). (d) RAN - Rabeinu Nisim ben Rav Reuven Girondi lived in the 1300's (d. ~1380). His Chidushim to Maseches Shabbos were originally published under the name "Chidushei ha'Ritva" in 5566 (1806). In the same year that the authentic Chidushei ha'Ritva were printed from the manuscript, 5727 (1967), the Ran's Chidushim were reprinted under the correct name. They were recently printed again from manuscript by Mosad ha'Rav Kook's Mechon l'Hotza'as Rishonim v'Acharonim, with notes and annotations by Rav Yisrael Sklar (Yerushalayim 1995). The Chidushim on Shabbos that appear in the un-annotated set of Chidushei ha'Ran Al ha'Shas are *not* from the Ran (as has been noted by the Avnei Nezer in his approbation to the Chidushei ha'Ran on Avodah Zarah, and Rav Elchanan Wasserman in his introduction to Kobetz He'oros, and is evident when these Chidushim are compared to the Ran's other works.) See 3:g.
(3) PROVENCE & NARVONA(a) RABEINU YEHONASAN M'LUNIL - Lived in the early 1200's and learned under the Ra'avad. He wrote a commentary on the Rif for most of Shas, including Shabbos.
(b) SEFER HA'HASHLAMAH - Rabbeinu Meshulam ben Moshe wrote Sefer ha'Hashlamah on the Rif in order to complement the Rif by adding to it the Halachos that were not discussed in his commentary. He died in 1238.
(c) SEFER HA'ME'OROS - Rabbeinu Meir ben Shimon (d. 1264) wrote "Sefer ha'Me'oros" on the Rif. It was published by Rav M. Y. Blau in 5724 (1964).
(d) SEFER HA'MICHTAM - Rabbeinu David ben Levi lived at the turn of the fourteenth century and learned under his father, Rabbeinu Levi ben Benveneshti.
(e) RIVEVAN - Rabbeinu Yehudah ben Binyamin ha'Rofei (d. 1280), who studied in Germany under Rabbeinu Avigdor Kohen Tzedek and became one of the leading sages of Italy, wrote a commentary to the Rif for many Masechtos, including Shabbos. He often uses (without quoting by name) the words of Rashi, making his work an excellent source for verifying the proper Girsa in Rashi.
(f) ME'IRI - Rabbeinu Menachem ben Shlomo (d. 1315) wrote his comprehensive Halachic work, "Beis ha'Bechirah," on 37 Masechtos of Shas. He was a student of the Rashba, and sometimes even cites from commentaries as late as those of the Ritva. Almost never mentioning another Rishon by name, the Meiri created "nicknames" for the commentators from whom he often cites, such as "Gedolei ha'Rabbanim" for Rashi, etc. A convenient list of these, along with their true identities, can be found at the beginning of the Beis ha'Bechirah on Beitzah.
(g) THE OLD "CHIDUSHEI HA'RAN" - The commentary printed in the one volume set of Chidushei ha'Ran on Maseches Shabbos was clearly not written by the Ran (see above, 2:d). It's author appears to be a late Rishon, who mostly collects from the commentaries of others, especially the Re'ah (mentor of the Ritva) and Rabbeinu Yehonasan. (According to Y.N. Epstein, he is the author of the Shitah Mekubetzes to Beitzah. He bases this assertion on the rather flimsy proof that in one or two places the two use identical uncommon expressions. See our introduction to Beitzah, b'Ezras Hashem.)
(4) GERMANY & FRANCE(a) RA'AVAN - by Rabbeinu Eliezer ben Nasan (d. 1170), perhaps the earliest of the Ba'alei ha'Tosfos.
(b) RA'AVYAH - Rabbeinu Eliezer ben Yoel ha'Levi (d. 1225), one of the Ba'alei ha'Tosfos, authored "Avi ha'Ezri," more commonly known simply as "Sefer ha'Ra'avyah."
(c) OR ZARUA - Rabbeinu Yitzchak ben Moshe (d. 1260) authored the Or Zarua. He studied under many of the great sages of his times, including Rabbeinu Yehudah he'Chasid, the Ra'avyah, the Sar mi'Kutzi, and the Ba'al ha'Roke'ach. His son, Rav Chaim Or Zarua, wrote a collection of Teshuvos. Rabbeinu Yitzchak named his work "Or Zarua" out of his excitement when he noted that the end letters of the verse "Or Zarua la'Tzadik..." spell out "R' Akivah." The Or Zarua usually prefaces each Halachah with a citation of the pertinent Gemara and Rashi, making him an excellent source for verifying variant Girsa'os in Rashi.
(d) TOSFOS RID and PISKEI RID - Rabbeinu Yeshaya (ben Mali, or ha'Rishon) d'Trani was one of the leading sages of Italy/Germany during the early 1200's. His commentary on most of the Masechtos of Shas is known as "Tosfos Rid." Also compiled a Halachic summary of the Maseches called Piskei Rid, printed in 1992 by Mechon ha'Talmud ha'Yisraeli.
(e) PISKEI RI'AZ - by the grandson of the above, Rabbeinu Yeshaya Acharon Z'l. Printed together with Piskei Rid, as listed above. Often cited in the SHILTEI GIBORIM on the Rif.
(f) TOSFOS HA'ROSH - Rabbeinu Asher ben Yechiel (d. 1328), originally from Spain, fled to Germany after his mentor, Rav Meir of Rotenberg, was taken captive by the authorities and passed away in jail. One of the great sages of Germany, he wrote commentaries and rulings on most of Shas which had a profound influence on the Code of Jewish Law. His "Tosfos" often serve to clarify the intentions of the earlier Tosfos that are printed in our Gemaras.
(5) OTHERS(a) RABEINU PERACHYAH BEN NISIM of Egypt, lived approx. in the year 1250, a contemporary of Rav Avraham ben ha'Rambam. Commentary on the Rif
(b) SEFER HA'NER - by Rav Zecharya Agamati, a contemporary of the Rambam. A commentary on the Maseches which often quotes from Rav Sherirah Gaon and Rav Hai Gaon, and from Rabeinu Chananel.
(1) ACHARONIM ON SHABBOSIt would be impossible to list here all of the works of the Acharonim on Maseches Shabbos. Instead, we will try to list the more classic works, or those more appropriate for the study of Dafyomi. Many Acharonim wrote Halachic compilations on the laws of Shabbos; these have not been included in our list.
1) PNEI YEHOSHUA - by Rav Yehoshua Yusha Falk of Krakow. One of the most basic commentaries on the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos, it was once the accepted practice for Yeshiva students to learn the Pnei Yehoshua from cover to cover while learning a Maseches.
2) KIKAYON D'YONAH - Rav Yonah Teumim (Amsterdam 1690, reprinted by the Neitra Yeshiva of Mount Kisko, NY 1958), short insights on Gemara Rashi and Tosfos to many Masechtos, following in the footsteps of the Maharsha and Maharshal. On the first Perek, and the 7th Perek until the end.
3) TZELACH - (an acronym for TZIYUN L'NEFESH CHAYAH) - by Rav Yechezkel Landau of Prague. (He named his work on Shas after his mother, Chayah, and his responsa, Noda b'Yehduah after his father.)
4) REBBI AKIVA EIGER - A large collection on the Maseches, culled from all of his writings was published in Zichron Yakov, 5743 (1983). (Rav Laurentz has recently begun to collect from all of Rebbi Akiva Eiger's works discussions that deal with the Melachos of Shabbos, which he then annotates and discusses at length. The first four volumes only cover a few of the Melachos.)
5) VILNA GA'ON (or GRA) - "CHIDUSHEI U'BIUREI HA'GRA L'MASECHES SHABBOS" by Rav Avraham Droshkovitz combines the original Chidushei ha'Gra on Shabbos with what the Gaon writes in Shenos Eliyahu (on the Mishnayos) and even with pertinent comments from the Biurei ha'Gra on the Shulchan Aruch.
6) CHASAM SOFER - Harav Moshe Sofer, of Frankfurt, son-in-law of Rebbi Akiva Eiger and student of Rav Nasan Adler and Rav Pinchas Horowitz (the Hafla'ah). A prolific writer, his legacy includes at least 7 volumes of responsa, Chidushim on much of Shas, Drashos, Chidushim on the Torah (2 different sets) and on Shulchan Aruch -- all of which are considered to be basic and necessary works in their field.
7) SEFAS EMES - short and beautiful insights by the second Gerer Rebbe, grandson of the Chidushei ha'Rim, the first Gerer Rebbe
8) GUR ARYEH - by the Maharal of Prague. Similar to his other works in style, includes deep analytical explanations of Agadah as well as on some Halachic Sugyos.
9) MENACHEM MESHIV - short comments pertaining to the literal meaning of the Gemara, meant for those learning the Maseches quickly -- on Berachos and Seder Mo'ed
10) SHABBOS SHEL MI - by Rav Yakov Shimshon Shabsai of Ankona (printed in Livorno, 1767, reprinted in Yerushalayim 1961). On the entire Maseches.
(2) ANTHOLOGIES ON SHABBOS1) GILYONEI HA'SHAS - by Rav Yosef Engel, author of "Asvan d'Oraisa"; (mainly references to, and quotes from, the writings of the Rishonim in their responsa and other early works, with additional insights by the author)
2) ASIFAS ZEKENIM HE'CHADASH (a few volumes) - a collection of rare works on the Maseches, for some of the Perakim of Shabbos.
3) MESILOS HA'BARZEL - by Rav Nisan Shabsai Hailper, listing sources in the Rishonim and Achronim that deal with the various Sugyos in the Gemara.
4) AL MASECHES SHABBOS (2 VOL.) - a collection of rare works on the Maseches, such as Ishei Yisrael and Etz ha'Da'as Tov.
(3) HALACHIC DISCUSSIONS, SHABBOS1) ROSH YOSEF - by Rav Yosef Tumim, author of the "Pri Megadim"
2) CHEFETZ HASHEM - by Rav Chayim Ibn Atar, the Or ha'Chayim ha'Kadosh
(4) DISCUSSIONS OF THE 39 MELACHOS1) TAL OROS (HA'KADMON) - by Rav Shaul ben David of Russia (Prague 1614, reprinted in Yerushalayim 1996 by ha'Ktav vha'Michtav)
2) TAL OROS (HA'SEPHARDI) - Rav Yosef ben Joya (Salonika 1790, reprinted in Yerushalayim 1987 by Or v'Derech). Revolves around the words of the Mordechai and Hagahos Mordechai on the Maseches (includes a few pages on Berachos as well).
3) MAGEN AVOS - by Rav Mordechai Bennett, on the 39 Melachos with regard to Shabbos and Yom Tov, includes some Chidushim on important Sugyos as well.
4) MINCHAS CHINUCH (MUSACH HA'SHABBOS) - In Mitzvah # (Shemiras Shabbos), the Minchas Chinuch dedicates a special section to a discussion of the 39 Melachos of Shabbos.
5) KALKELES HA'SHABBOS - the Tiferes Yisrael's Halachic discussion of the 39 Melachos, printed at the beginning of the Moed I volume of his Mishnayos.
6) IGLEI TAL - by Rav Avraham Borenstein, the Sochatchover Rebbe (author of Teshuvos Avnei Nezer, originally printed in 1905). Covers the Melachos of "Sidura d'Pas" and Gozez.
7) YESODEI YESHURUN - Rav Gedalyah Felder of Toronto Canada, originally printed in his Teshuvos "Yesodei Yeshurun" and later printed in a separate set under the same name by Rav Yeshaya Dvorkas, Yerushalayim 1976. Discusses every aspect of the 39 Melachos, and more. Rav Felder shares with us his tremendous breadth of knowledge of the Rishonim and Acharonim and often adds his own insights to those of his predecessors.
8) NE'IM ZEMIROS - a beautiful poem on the 39 Melachos by the author of the Mirkeves ha'Mishnah. Includes in concise form a brief mention of the Halachos recorded in the Rambam with reference to the various Melachos. Printed with the author's commentary on his poem, in which he elucidates the meaning hidden in his terse words. Printed recently by Mechon Yerushalayim from the author's original manuscript, which miraculously survived the Sho'ah.
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