ROSH HASHANAH 34 - Dedicated by Andy & Nancy Neff in memory of Leah Miriam bat Yisroel -- Lucy Rabin, beloved wife of Sidney Rabin and mother of Nancy Neff and Valerie, Doug and Andy Rabin, who passed away on 14 Sivan 5767.

1)

(a)We have just learned the obligation of blowing on a Shofar, as well as that of blowing a Teki'ah before and a Teki'ah after each Teru'ah, from Yom Kippur of the Yovel with a Hekesh. From where do we know to blow three Teru'os on Rosh Hashanah?

(b)But how can we combine Pesukim written by Rosh Hashanah together with Pesukim written by Yovel?

(c)How come that before we learned one from the other with a 'Hekesh', and now we are learning them with a 'Gezeirah-Shavah'?

1)

(a)We have just learned the obligation of blowing on a Shofar, as well as that of blowing a Teki'ah before and a Teki'ah after each Teru'ah, from Yom Kippur of the Yovel with a Hekesh. We know to blow three Teru'os on Rosh Hashanah - from the three Pesukim "v'Ha'avarta Shofar Teru'ah (ba'Chodesh ha'Shevi'i" (Yovel), "Shabason Zichron Teru'ah" (Rosh Hashanah) and "Yom Teru'ah Yiheyeh Lachem" (Rosh Hashanah).

(b)We combine Pesukim written by Rosh Hashanah together with Pesukim written by Yovel - be means of the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Shevi'i" "Shevi'i".

(c)Initially, we learned one from the other with a Hekesh. But that was before we knew about the 'Gezeirah-Shavah'. However, once we discovered the 'Gezeirah-Shavah', we discard the Hekesh in favor of the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' (which is stronger than a Hekesh, because it is 'Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai').

2)

(a)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Beha'aloscha ...

1. ... "uve'Hakhel es ha'Kahal, Tiske'u v'Lo Sari'u"?

2. ... "u'Seka'tem Teru'ah"?

3. ... "Teru'ah Yiske'u"?

(b)What does Rebbi Yishmael Beno shel Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah learn from ...

1. ... "u'Seka'tem Teru'ah Shenis" (written by the departure of the second camp)?

2. ... the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' of "Teru'ah" "Teru'ah" (from the trumpets)?

(c)Even though we have just learned the three Teru'os from the Pesukim "Shabason Zichron Teru'ah", "Yom Teru'ah" and "v'Ha'avarta Shofar Teru'ah", the middle Pasuk is really needed for something else. What is it needed for?

(d)Then what is the source of the third Teru'ah?

2)

(a)We learn from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "u've'Hakheil es ha'Kahal, Tiske'u v'Lo Sari'u" - that a Teki'ah is an independent note.

2. ... "u'Seka'tem Teru'ah" - that a Teki'ah must always precede a Teru'ah.

3. ... "Teru'ah Yiske'u" - that a Teru'ah is always followed by a Teki'ah.

(b)Rebbi Yishmael Beno shel Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah learns from ...

1. ... "u'Seka'tem Teru'ah Shenis" (written by the departure of the second camp) - that a Teru'ah is always followed by a Teki'ah.

2. ... the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' of "Teru'ah" "Teru'ah" (from the trumpets) - that this principle extends to the Shofar of Rosh Hashanah.

(c)Even though we have just learned the three Teru'os from the Pesukim "Shabason Zichron Teru'ah", "Yom Teru'ah" and "v'Ha'avarta Shofar Teru'ah", the middle Pasuk is really needed - for the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' of ("Yom) Teru'ah" "Teru'ah" to learn Rosh Hashanah from Yovel (as we saw in b.).

(d)The third Teru'ah, in fact - is only mi'de'Rabanan, in order not to differentiate between Malchuyos, Zichronos and Shofros.

3)

(a)Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni Amar Rebbi Yonasan goes even further than the Tana Kama. In his opinion, only one Teru'ah is min ha'Torah. The 'Gezeirah-Shavah' is learned from "Shabason Zichron Teru'ah". What does he learn from "Yom Teru'ah"?

(b)Seeing as the Tana Kama anyway learns Rosh Hashanah from Yovel, why does he not also learn the Teki'ah before and after the Teru'ah from "v'Ha'avarta Shofar" and "Ta'aviru Shofar"?

(c)So what does he learn from ...

1. ... "v'Ha'avarta Shofar" (Rav Masna's Din)?

2. ... "Ta'aviru Shofar"?

3)

(a)Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni Amar Rebbi Yonasan goes even further than the Tana Kama. In his opinion, only one Teru'ah is min ha'Torah. The 'Gezeirah-Shavah' is learned from "Shabason Zichron Teru'ah". From "Yom Teru'ah" - he learns that the Shofar must be blown by day (leaving only the Pasuk of "v'Ha'avarta Shofar Teru'ah" for a Teru'ah d'Oraisa).

(b)The Tana Kama cannot learn the Teki'ah before and after the Teru'ah on Rosh Hashanah from the Yovel - because, in his opinion, "v'Ha'avarta Shofar" and "Ta'aviru Shofar" do not imply a Teki'ah (even by Yovel), so there is nothing to learn from.

(c)In fact, he learns from ...

1. ... "v'Ha'avarta Shofar" Rav Masna's Din - that the Shofar must be blown through the narrow end, just as it grows on the head of the animal ("v'Ha'avarta" - 'Derech Ha'avaraso').

2. ... "Ta'aviru Shofar" - that the blower must hold the Shofar in his hands whilst blowing.

4)

(a)From where does the Tana of the first Beraisa learn Rav Masna's Din?

(b)What does he learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "v'Ha'avarta Shofar" "va'Yetzav Moshe, va'Ya'aviru Kol ba'Machaneh"?

(c)And from where does the Tana who learns the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' from the trumpets, know that on Rosh Hashanah, we blow a Shofar?

4)

(a)The Tana of the first Beraisa learns Rav Masna's Din - from the unusual Lashon of "v'Ha'avarta" (instead of "va'Harei'osa").

(b)He learns from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "v'Ha'avarta Shofar" "va'Yetzav Moshe, va'Ya'aviru Kol ba'Machaneh" - that the main thing is that the Shofar is heard, and it does not therefore need to be held in the blower's hand.

(c)The Tana who learns the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' from the trumpets, learns that on Rosh Hashanah, we blow on a Shofar - from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Tik'u va'Chodesh Shofar ... ", which can only refer to Rosh Hashanah, because of the continuation of the Pasuk "ba'Kese l'Yom Chageinu", and the only Chag on which the moon is hidden is that of Rosh Hashanah.

5)

(a)Rebbi Avahu instituted in Caesaria that one blows Teki'ah, three Shevarim, Teru'ah and Teki'ah (known in short as Ta-sh-ra-t). Why did he do that?

(b)What is the problem with this?

(c)What must the full version of his Takanah therefore have been?

(d)Seeing as they would anyway blow three sets of Ta-sha-t, and three of Ta-ra-t (as we just explained), why did he need to add the third set of Ta-sh-ra-t?

5)

(a)Rebbi Avahu instituted in Caesaria the blowing of Ta-sh-ra-t - because of the Safek mentioned on the previous Amud. They were uncertain whether the "Yebava" of Targum Onkelos means longer notes, shorter ones. So he incorporated them both in this way.

(b)The problem with doing this is that - if the correct version of Teru'ah is the Shevarim, then the Teru'ah will interrupt between the Teru'ah and the Teki'ah, and vice-versa.

(c)The full version of his Takanah must therefore have been - to blow three times Ta-sh-ra-t, three times Ta-sha-t, and three times Ta-ra-t.

(d)Even though they anyway blew three sets of Ta-sha-t, and three of Ta-ra-t (as we just explained), he nevertheless needed to add Ta-sh-ra-t - because of the possibility that "Yebava" might incorporate both, first longer notes and then shorter ones.

6)

(a)Why did he not also institute a set of Teki'ah, Teru'ah, Shevarim, Teki'ah, in case that is what "Teru'ah" means?

(b)How did they used to blow before Rebbi Avahu's Takanah?

6)

(a)He did not also institute a set of Teki'ah, Teru'ah, Shevarim, Teki'ah - because that is certainly not how people cry (which is the basic meaning to the word "Yebava"); one first tends to emit long sighs, and then to break out into short sobs.

(b)Prior to Rebbi Avahu's Takanah, each community would follow the ruling of its Rav, as we saw above by the Machlokes between the Tana of our Mishnah and the Tana of the Beraisa.

34b----------------------------------------34b

7)

(a)What did Rebbi Yochanan say about someone who hears the nine Shofar-blasts over a period of nine hours?

(b)What did he say in the name of Rebbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak with regard to Hallel and Megilah?

(c)How do we reconcile this with his previous statement?

(d)What is wrong with the statement in the Beraisa, that someone who hears the nine blasts of the Shofar from nine people all blowing at the same time, is not Yotzei? On what basis do we erase it?

7)

(a)Rebbi Yochanan ruled - that someone who hears the nine Shofar-blasts over a period of nine hours is nevertheless Yotzei.

(b)He said in the name of Rebbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak - that someone who stops in the middle of Hallel or the Megilah and waits long enough to read the whole of Hallel or the whole Megilah, must start again from the beginning.

(c)To reconcile this with his previous statement, we establish - his previous statement as his own opinion, whereas this one is that of his Rebbe (Rebbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak).

(d)We erase the statement in the Beraisa, that someone who hears the nine blasts of the Shofar from nine people all blowing at the same time, is not Yotzei - on the basis of what we learned earlier, that it is possible to hear two voices simultaneously, from two different people (particularly with regard to the Shofar, which people make every effort to hear) - See also Tosfos DH 'mi'Tish'ah'.

8)

(a)Rebbi Avahu was reciting the Shema when he and Rebbi Yochanan entered unclean alleyways. What did he do when they entered the alleyways and what did he ask his Rebbe as they left them?

(b)What did the latter reply?

(c)How do we reconcile this with his previous ruling with regard to hearing nine notes in nine hours?

(d)Would Rebbi Yochanan have required Rebbi Avahu to stop reciting the Shema whilst walking through the alleyways?

8)

(a)Rebbi Avahu was reciting the Shema, when he and Rebbi Yochanan entered unclean alleyways. As soon as they entered - he stopped reciting the Shema, and as soon as they left them - he asked his Rebbe whether he may conclude the Shema (or whether he needs to start again from the beginning).

(b)The latter replied - that if he waited long enough to recite the entire Shema, then he must start again from the beginning.

(c)Rebbi Yochanan himself maintained that Rebbi Avahu was permitted to continue the Shema from where he left off. It was clear from Rebbi Avahu's She'eilah however, that Rebbi Avahu followed the opinion of Rebbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak. Consequently, he answered him according to that opinion.

(d)Rebbi Yochanan would not even have required Rebbi Avahu to stop reciting the Shema whilst walking through the alleyways - in his opinion, he could have placed his hand over his mouth and continued reciting.

9)

(a)On a Ta'anis (for rain etc.), one recites six extra Berachos in the Amidah, after each of which one blows the trumpets (See Rosh, Siman 14). What does someone do if he is unable to blow some of the notes, or if one is not acquainted with some of the Berachos?

(b)This would not be the Halachah on Rosh Hashanah. Why is that?

9)

(a)On a Ta'anis (for rain etc.), one recites six extra Berachos in the Amidah, after each of which one blows the trumpets (See Rosh, Siman 14). Someone who is unable to blow some of the notes, or who is not acquainted with some of the Berachos - may nevertheless blow the notes that he is able to blow and recite the Berachos with which he is acquainted.

(b)On Rosh Hashanah - this would not be the case, because the Beraisa says that the Teki'os (the Teki'ah and the Teru'ah) and the Berachos (Malchuyos, Zichronos and Shofros) are Me'akev one another (one is not Yotzei one without the other).

10)

(a)What did Rav Papa bar Shmuel say to his Shamash before he began his silent Tefilas Musaf one Rosh Hashanah?

(b)On what grounds did Rava object to that?

(c)One is permitted to blow Shofar for one's friend. May he also render him Yotzei the Amidah, if his friend answers 'Amen' to all the Berachos?

10)

(a)One Rosh Hashanah, before he began his silent Tefilas Musaf - Rav Papa bar Shmuel instructed his Shamash to cough before blowing the Shofar (to give him a chance to stop Davening and to concentrate on the Teki'ios).

(b)Rava objected to that, on the grounds - that it is only the community that follows this procedure; individuals should conclude their Tefilah and blow afterwards.

(c)One is permitted to blow Shofar for one's friend - but not to render him Yotzei the Amidah, even if his friend answers 'Amen' to all the Berachos. Note: Even Raban Gamliel in our Mishnah only permits the Shatz to be Motzi any individual who wants to be Yotzei, but not an individual.

11)

(a)What does the Beraisa rule regarding a person who has no Shofar and who is unable to Daven by heart (bear in mind that there were no Sidurim in the days of the Gemara), assuming he has the choice to go to a town where they posses a Shofar but do not know how to Daven, or go to the town where they know how to Daven but do not posses a Shofar?

(b)Considering that Shofar is a Mitzvah d'Oraisa, whereas Tefilah is only mid'Rabanan, why did the Tana need to tell us this?

11)

(a)Despite the fact that there were no Sidurim in the days of the Gemara, the Beraisa rules that a person who has no Shofar and who is unable to Daven by heart - should rather go to a community where they will blow Shofar (even if they do not know how to Daven), rather than to one where they know how to Daven (but who have no Shofar).

(b)In spite of the fact that Shofar is a Mitzvah d'Oraisa, whereas Tefilah is only mid'Rabanan, the Tana needs to tell us this - in a case where the Shofar is only a Safek (e.g. he may arrive too late to catch them in Shul), and the Tefilah is certain (to teach us that a Safek d'Oraisa overrides a Vadai d'Rabanan).

12)

(a)According to Raban Gamliel (who permits the Shatz to render Yotzei even those who are able to Daven), why do we Daven the silent Amidah at all?

(b)According to the Rabanan, on the other hand (who obligate someone who is able to Daven himself, to do so), why does the Shatz repeat the Amidah?

(c)What did Raban Gamliel counter, when the Rabanan answered him that?

(d)Rebbi Yochanan maintains that the Rabanan later conceded this point to Raban Gamliel. What did Rav say about that? Which prominent Amora agrees with Rav?

12)

(a)According to Raban Gamliel (who permits the Shatz to render Yotzei even those who are able to Daven), we Daven the silent Amidah - in order to give the Shatz a chance to go over the Tefilah before Chazaras ha'Shatz (which is the main Tefilah).

(b)According to the Rabanan, on the other hand (who obligate someone who is able to Daven himself, to do so), the Shatz repeats the Amidah - only for the benefit of those who are unable to Daven on their own.

(c)When the Rabanan answered him that, Raban Gamliel countered that - just as he is Motzi those who cannot Daven on their own, so too, is he Motzi those who can.

(d)Rebbi Yochanan maintains that the Rabanan later conceded this point to Raban Gamliel. According to Rav, however - they still retain their viewpoint, and Resh Lakish agrees with him.

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