What is the meaning of "Yikom Goy Oyvav"?
Radak: It is to take vengeance from its enemies, it is as if said me'Oyvav. We find like this elsewhere
Why is there a Kamatz under the Ayin in "Amad"?
Malbim: This shows that it is a Ma'amar Musgar (out of place. Yehoshua said 'Shemesh b'Giv'on Dom v'Yare'ach b'Emek Ayalon Ad Yikom Goy Oyvav ha'Lo Hi Chesuvah Al Sefer ha'Yashar 1 '; the 'narrator' inserted "va'Yidom ha'Shemesh v'Yare'ach Amad" to show that his words were fulfilled even before he finished speaking.
Yehoshua mentioned this to show why the sun and moon should obey; Hashem already promised to do open wonders like this in the war.
What is Sefer ha'Yashar, and where is this written there?
Radak (12): It is the Torah (Avodah Zarah 25a). Hashem said "Neged Kol Amcha E'eseh Nifla'os
Avodah Zarah 25a (regarding our verse): Sefer ha'Yashar is the book of Avraham, Yitzchak and Yakov (Rashi 25a
How long is "k'Yom Tamim" that the sun delayed?
Radak (12): It is like the longest day (daylight hours), i.e. in summer.
Radak (12, like R. Shmuel bar Nachmani, Avodah Zarah 25a): It was for 36 hours. 1
Malbim (like R. Elazar, Avodah Zarah 25a): It was for 24 hours. 2
R. Yehoshua ben Levi (Avodah Zarah 25a): It delayed 12 hours. 3
Avodah Zarah 25a: Some say that the three opinions (refer to 10:13:4:2-4) are about the extra hours it shined. In all, it shined for 60, 48 or 36 hours.
R. Shmuel bar Nachmani: The sun went for six hours (to the middle of the sky), delayed 12 hours, went six, and [before setting] delayed another 24. "V'Lo Atz Lavo k'Yom Tamim"
Why did the sun delay so long?
Radak (12): The war was Erev Shabbos, and Yehoshua feared lest Yisrael be Mechalel Shabbos. He stretched his hands so the sun would stop on Friday for the amount of [daylight] time of Shabbos, and the moon 1 for the time of Shabbos night and Motza'ei Shabbos, i.e. 36 hours.
Malbim: They did not need so long to kill the enemy. However, since the Galgal continued rotating 2 , had the sun resumed its path before 24 hours, it would have been in the wrong relative position to everything else. The sun and moon ceased their daily rotation, but they did move in their annual rotation; the sun goes about one degree per day. 3 If not, they would have needed to wait an entire year to be in the same relative position to the Mazalos!
I.e. both of them delayed the 12 hours that the sun normally shines on Shabbos day, and the 24 hours that the moon normally shines on Shabbos night and Motza'ei Shabbos. (Even though the Torah permits war on Shabbos, and Yericho was conquered on Shabbos, if this can be avoided, it should be avoided!
Why does it say "k'Yom Tamim"?
Radak: Refer to 10:3:4:1.
Malbim: It was about a day. Since the sun moved about one degree in its annual orbit 1 (refer to 10:13:5:2, 10:13:5:2 2 ), after 24 hours, it needed to wait a little extra until it would be in the same relative position to the Mazalos, before resuming its normal course.
In one year of 365 days, the earth rotates 366 times; one of these is 'canceled' due to its orbit around the sun in the other direction. It turns out that in 24 hours, it rotates 1 and 1/365 times. The sun needed to wait [about four minutes] for the earth to rotate this extra one part in 365, about one degree. (PF)