THE MIZBE'ACH IN ALEXANDRIA
Question: What is the meaning of "Ir ha'Heres Ye'amer l'Echas" (just before the above verse)?
Answer (Rav Yosef): One of the cities, 'Beis Shemesh', will be destroyed.
Question: What is the source that "Ir ha'Heres" means (city of) the sun?
Answer: It says "ha'Omer la'Cheres v'Lo Yizrach." ("Heres" is like "Cheres", for 'Hei' and 'Ches' are interchangeable.)
(Rav Huna): "Havi'u Vanai me'Rachok" refers to Yisraelim exiled to Bavel. Their mind is settled, like sons;
"U'Vnosai mi'Ktzei ha'Aretz" refers to those exiled to other lands, their mind is unsettled, like daughters. (Ben Yehoyada - a young girl has many worries, e.g. if her father will be able to give a proper dowry, if she will find a husband, if she will bear children... Young men (before they need to feed families) have less distractions.)
(R. Aba bar Rav Yitzchak): (At longitudes) between the cities of Tzur (Tyre?) and Kartigni (Carthage?), people recognize Yisrael (Tosfos Gitin 8a (DH Rebbi); Rashi - they recognize the former honor of Yisrael, and do not impose on them a harsh yoke) and Hash-m (Rashi - and do not believe in idolatry);
West of Tzur and east of Kartigni, people do not recognize Yisrael nor Hash-m.
Question (R. Simi bar Chiya): "Mi'Mizrach Shemesh v'Ad Mevo'o Gadol Shmi ba'Goyim" (shows that everywhere people know Hash-m!)
Rav: Are you really Simi (a great Chacham, yet you ask a poor question?)!
(West of Tzur and east of Kartigni) they call Hash-m the G-d of gods. (Drashos ha'Ran (9) - they think that other powers emanated from him. Maharsha - they do not recognize that He runs the world. They think that He gave power and authority to others to do this.)
TORAH IS IN PLACE OF KORBANOS
Question: (The verse continues) "uv'Chol Makom Muktar Mugash Lishmi." Are people Maktir and Megish (bring Korbanos close) to Hash-m everywhere?!
Answer (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): It refers to Chachamim, who engage in Torah everywhere. It is considered as if they are Maktir and Megish.
"U'Minchah Tehorah" refers to one who learns Torah in Taharah, i.e. after getting married. (He is not distracted by lust.)
Question: What is the meaning of "Avdei Hash-m ha'Omdim b'Veis Hash-m ba'Laylos"? (Avodah is primarily during the day!)
Answer (R. Yochanan): Chachamim engage in Torah at night. It is considered as if they engage in Avodah.
(Rav): "L'Olam Zos Al Yisrael" refers to Micha'el, the great angel, offering Korbanos on the Mizbe'ach (in the Mikdash in Shamayim);
(R. Yochanan): It refers to Chachamim, who engage in laws of Avodah. It is considered as if the Mikdash was built in their days.
Question (Reish Lakish): What do we learn from "Zos ha'Torah la'Olah la'Minchah vela'Chatas vela'Asham"?
Answer #1 (Reish Lakish): If one engages in Torah, it is considered as if he offered Olah, Minchah, Chatas and Asham.
Objection (Rava): If so, it should say 'vela'Minchah'!
Answer #2 (Rava): Rather, one who learns Torah does not need Olah, Minchah, Chatas and Asham (for Torah will protect him from sinning).
(R. Yitzchak): We learn from "Zos Toras ha'Chatas" and "Zos Toras ha'Asham.". If one engages in the laws of Chatas (or Asham), it is as if he offered that Korban.
(Mishnah): It says "Ishe Re'ach Nicho'ach" regarding Olas Behemah, Olas ha'Of, and Minchah, to teach that it does not matter whether one does (offers) much or little (Tzon Kodoshim - even if he could afford a bigger Korban), as long as he intends l'Shem Shamayim.
(Gemara - R. Zeira): We learn from "Mesukah Shenas ha'Oved Im Me'at v'Im Harbe Yochal" (whether he works much or a little, there is reward.)
(Rav Ada bar Ahavah): We learn from "bi'Rvos ha'Tovah Rabu Ochleha u'Mah Kisharon li'V'aleha (Ki Im Re'os Einav," Kohanim get more to eat from a bigger Korban, but Hash-m cares only about the intent of the one who brought it.)
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Azai): In the Parshah of Korbanos, it never says 'Kel' or 'Elokim', only 'Hashem', so that polytheists will have no claim (Rashi - to say that different gods commanded to bring different Korbanos. Maharsha - 'Kel' and 'Elokim' sometimes refer to idols.)
It says "Ishe Re'ach Nicho'ach" regarding a bull, which is the biggest Korban, and regarding birds, which are small Korbanos, and regarding Minchah. This teaches that it does not matter whether one does much or little, as long as he intends l'Shem Shamayim.
Suggestion: Perhaps Hash-m needs to eat our Korbanos!
Rejection: "Im Er'av Lo Omar Lach Ki Li Sevel u'Mlo'ah", "Ki Li Chol Chayso Ya'ar Behemos b'Harerei Elef. Yadati Kol Of Harim v'Ziz Sadai Imadi. Ha'Ochal Besar Abirim v'Dam Atudim Eshteh";
I did not command you to bring Korbanos for My desires, (and you will intend) in order that I will do your will in return;
Rather, you offer for your benefit - "liRtzonchem Tizbachuhu" (it atones for you);
Alternatively, "li'Rtzonchem Tizbachuhu" commands to be aware of what you offer;
Question (Shmuel): What is the source that Mis'asek (one who did not intend for the action he did) is Pasul in Kodshim?
Answer #1 (Rav Huna): "V'Shachat Es Ben ha'Bakar" teaches that Shechitah must be l'Shem an ox (Korban).
Shmuel: I knew that l'Chatchilah, it must be l'Shem the Korban. I asked for the source that this is Me'akev!
Answer #2 (Rav Huna): "Li'Rtzonchem Tizbachuhu" is a second source to require intent. Therefore, it is Me'akev.