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1. The Mishnah says that the world is judged at four different times during the year.
2. The Gemara says that the Mishnah appears to be unlike the opinion of four Tana'im.
3. Rava says that indeed our Mishnah is according to a fifth opinion, that of Tana d'Vei Rebbi Yishmael.
4. Rav Yosef explains why we pray every day for our needs when our judgment was already sealed on Yom Kippur.
5. The Gemara explains why we blow the horn of a ram on Rosh Hashanah.


1. The amount of grain to be given to the world is determined on Pesach, the amount of fruit is determined on Shavuos, on Rosh Hashanah people's lives are judged, and on Sukos the amount of rain is determined.
2. Rebbi Meir: The world is judged on Rosh Hashanah, but the verdict is sealed only on Yom Kippur. Rebbi Yehudah: Everything is judged on Rosh Hashanah, and the verdict is sealed on these other times (Yom Kippur for people's lives, Sukos for water, etc.). Rebbi Yosi: A person is judged every day. Rebbi Nasan: A person is judged every hour.
3. However, he agrees that the Mishnah is referring only to the beginning of the judgment of man, and that Yom Kippur is when man's verdict is sealed. The Mishnah is not referring to when man's verdict is sealed, but rather when he is judged.
4. Either we rule like Rebbi Yosi (or Rebbi Nasan) that these things can change by the day or by the hour, or we say that it is good to pray even after a verdict has been given.
5. This is in order to recall the memory of Akeidas Yitzchak, who ended up having a ram brought in his stead. This makes it considered as though we tied ourselves up in order to be sacrificed before Hashem.

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