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NIDAH 49 - Dedicated generously by Reb Kalman and Esme Bookman of Glasgow, Scotland.


1. The Mishnah lists many cases in which if A happens then B results, but if B happens then A does not necessarily result.
2. An earthenware vessel is considered broken only if water can enter it.
3. Any extra limb covered with nail also has bone and causes Tum'ah through touch, carrying, and Ohel.
4. One who may judge cases of corporal punishment may judge monetary matters, but one who may judge monetary matters may not necessarily judge cases of corporal punishment.
5. One who may judge may testify, but one who may testify may not necessarily judge.


1. For example, if there is a hole in an earthenware vessel that allows water to enter, then water certainly can exit. However, if water can exit the vessel, it does not necessarily mean that water can enter the vessel.
2. However, if a piece of earthenware is used to plug up holes in vessels containing liquids, and it then becomes broken so that water can exit but still cannot enter, it is considered broken. This is because it can no longer be used to stop liquids from leaking out of the vessel.
3. If it has bone but does not have nail, it does not cause Tum'ah through Ohel (after it is detached from the person while he is alive, or after he dies).
4. This includes a convert or a Mamzer, who may judge monetary matters but may not judge matters of corporal punishment.
5. Rebbi Yochanan says that the Mishnah is including a person who is blind in one eye; he may testify but he is not allowed to judge.

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