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1. If a goat is roasted with its Chelev, it is sufficient to remove the outer layer if the Chelev is lean.
2. If a kidney is cooked with its Chelev, it suffices to remove the outer layer.
3. If meat is cooked with milk, a Nochri baker may be relied on to taste it in order to determine if it has the taste of meat with milk.
4. If Terumah is cooked with Chulin, it must be given to a Kohen to taste in order to determine if the Terumah imparted taste to the Chulin.
5. If a prohibited food item -- which is cooked with Kosher food that has the same taste -- consists of less than one-sixtieth of the mixture, it is nullified and the mixture may be eaten.
6. Shmuel maintains that if a prohibited food item is salted together with a permitted item, it is tantamount to being roasted together.
7. Shmuel maintains that if a prohibited food item is pickled together with a permitted item, it is tantamount to being cooked together.
8. When sixty parts are measured for the purpose of nullifying a prohibited food item, the soup, sediment, pieces of meat and the pot are all taken into account.
9. When we estimate whether a prohibited food item imparted taste, we regard the prohibited item as if it were onion or leek.
10. If an udder becomes mixed with a meat dish and there are sixty parts of meat including the udder in the dish, it is nullified, but the udder is prohibited. If it falls into another pot, it prohibits the food in that pot.
11. When a prohibited item becomes mixed with a permitted item, there must be sixty parts more of permitted food than the entire prohibited item; it is not sufficient for there to be sixty parts to what was expelled from it.
A BIT MORE
1. If the Chelev is fatty, the entire goat is forbidden, even the ear, because it is the nature of Chelev to permeate anything that is roasted with it.
2. Even if the Chelev is fatty, it is sufficient to remove the outer layer, because there is a membrane which separates the kidney from its Chelev.
3. Although, normally, we do not rely on a Nochri, in this case we rely on him since he is a baker and would not jeopardize the trust of his customer.
4. If the Terumah imparted taste to the Chulin, the mixture is permitted only to a Kohen.
5. Since both the prohibited and permitted items have the same taste, it is impossible to determine whether the prohibited item imparted its taste to the mixture. Instead, we estimate if it is more or less than one-sixtieth of the mixture.
6. The outer layer of the permitted item must be peeled off. The remainder may be eaten.
7. The permitted item is prohibited completely if there are less than sixty parts per one part of the prohibited item.
8. According to one opinion, we take into account the actual walls of the pot. According to another opinion, we take into account only the amount that the pot absorbed from the permitted food item.
9. No prohibited food items impart more flavor than onions or leek. Therefore, we regard all food items as though they are onions or leeks, with the exception of a Gid ha'Nasheh, which imparts very little flavor and is regarded like meat in turnips.
10. Since the udder itself is meat but received flavor from the milk inside of it, the meat of the udder is counted toward the sixty parts needed to nullify the taste of the milk in the udder. However, even if there are sixty parts and the meat in the pot is permitted, the udder itself is prohibited since the milk in the udder received taste from the meat.
11. Since we cannot know exactly how much was expelled from it, there must be sixty parts more than the entire prohibited item.
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