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1. The Greeks first ruled over Eilam for six years. Subsequently, they ruled over the entire world,
2. The Shtaros which are written in Galus are dated in accordance with the Kingdom of Yavan.
3. The first day of Nisan is the Rosh Hashanah for Regalim and for kings.
4. The first day of Tishrei is Rosh Hashanah for years and for Shemitin.
5. The day that a Roman king started his reign and the day that the son of the king was crowned during his father's lifetime was a religious holiday for the Romans.
6. The Romans who are descended from Esav are a lowly nation. A son does not succeed his father as king. They do not have their own script or language.
7. Antoninus, the king of Rome, used a secret tunnel to visit Rebbi every day in order to learn Torah.
8. The Roman minister Keti'ah bar Shalom dissuaded the Roman king from destroyign the Jewish people. He was rewarded with a share in the World to Come.
9. The Kohen Gadol receives half of the loaves of the Lechem ha'Panim each week.


1. The date on a Shtar is in accordance with the number of years of the Greek Kingdom. The six years when the Greeks ruled in Eilam are normally not included in that count. Nevertheless, if a scribe included the six years, it is not regarded as a postdated Shtar.
2. Shtaros are not dated by the number of years that have passed from the Exodus from Egypt, which was 1000 years prior to the beginning of the reign of the Greeks.
3. The count of the new year of the reign of a Jewish king begins from the first of Nisan.
4. The count of the new year of the reign of a Nochri king begins from the first of Tishrei.
5. The birthday of the king is also a religious holiday. It is forbidden to do commerce with them for the three days prior to that date.
6. However, the king may request from his ministers to allow his son to succeed him.
7. He took two servants with him. One he killed at the entrance to the house of Rebbi. The second one he killed at the entrance to his own house.
8. He told the king that the world cannot exist without Yisrael, and he told him that if the Jews are destroyed, the Romans will be called a cut-off kingdom. He was taken out to be killed for his impudence. On the way, he fell on his sword in order to perform a Bris Milah on himself. He declared, "All of my property shall be left for Rebbi Akiva and his colleagues."
9. The Torah states, "It shall be for Aharon and his sons." The Chachamim derive from here that half of the loaves shall be for Aharon, the Kohen Gadol, and the other half for the other Kohanim.

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