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AVODAH ZARAH 39
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AVODAH ZARAH 39 (8 Adar) - dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of Sarah bas Baruch Hersh Rosenbaum, who passed away on 8 Adar 5776, by her husband Zev Dov Rosenbaum.

SUMMARY

1. If a fish does not yet have fins and scales, but it would have grown fins and scales had it remained in the water, it is kosher.
 
2. Non-kosher fish do not live in certain rivers because the earth of those rivers is not hospitable to them.
 
3. The "sea-donkey" is kosher, but the "sea-ox" is not.
 
4. If a very sharp tasting food is cut with a non-kosher knife, it may not be eaten even if the knife has not been used during the past day.
 
5. The wife and servant of a Talmid Chacham have the status of a Talmid Chacham.
 
6. If the wife, daughter, or servant of an Am ha'Aretz marries, or becomes a servant of, a Talmid Chacham, there is no need for them to accept upon themselves the conditions of being a Chaver.
 
7. If the wife, daughter, or servant of a Talmid Chacham marries, or becomes a servant of, an Am ha'Aretz, there is a disagreement about whether they need to accept upon themselves the conditions of being a Chaver.
 
8. If wine, Techeles, meat, or a piece of fish is sent with a Nochri, it must be closed with two seals.
 
9. It is forbidden to buy certain food items from the Jewish merchants of Surya. However, if one is invited to eat at a merchant's house, it is permitted to eat these items.
 
10. If a Yisrael sits near the flock of a Nochri while the cows are being milked, the milk is permitted even if some of the animals in the flock are non-kosher.
 
11. The honey of a Nochri is kosher.
 
12. If grapes are harvested in order to bring them to the wine press, the liquid which drips from them makes them susceptible to Tum'ah.

A BIT MORE

1. If the fins and scales of a fish fall off when it is taken out of the water, the fish is kosher.
 
2. If it is known that there are no non-kosher fish in a certain river, it is permitted to eat the fish of that river without inspection.
 
3. There are corresponding sea creatures for every land animal. With respect to Kashrus, the sea-donkey and the sea-ox are the opposite of their counterparts on dry land.
 
4. The sharpness of the food causes the knife to impart a good taste to the food even though it has not been used during the past day.
 
5. Accordingly, food or Techeles may be bought from them without concern that it is not kosher.
 
6. They do not need to prove that they can be trusted with Ma'aseros or with Tum'ah and Taharah.
 
7. According to Rebbi Meir, there is no need for them to accept upon themselves the conditions of being a Chaver. Rebbi Yehudah disagrees.
 
8. If they are sent with only one seal, they are forbidden. Techeles, meat, and fish are expensive. Wine is often poured to an Avodah Zarah. The Nochri may break open the package and re-seal it with a counterfeit seal.
 
9. The merchants are not concerned with the prohibition of Lifnei Iver and will sell non-kosher items. However, they will not bring these items into their homes.
 
10. If the Yisrael cannot see the milking while he is sitting, but he can see it while he is standing, the milk is kosher. The Nochri will be afraid to mix in non-kosher milk.
 
11. We are not concerned that he will mix wine in the honey, because it will spoil the honey. We are not concerned that he cooked the honey, because honey is eaten raw and thus is not subject to the prohibition of Bishul Akum. Furthermore, the pot imparts a bad taste to the honey.
 
12. However, if the grapes are harvested in order to be eaten, the liquid that drips on the grapes does not make them susceptible to Tum'ah because the liquid is unwanted.

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