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1. During a year of famine, a leap year may not be proclaimed.
2. The Chachamim may not begin their deliberations about the establishment of a leap year until after Rosh Hashanah.
3. A leap year may be established only in the year in which it is needed.
4. A Shvi'is year may not be made into a leap year.
5. The Chachamim maintain that a leap year may not be established on Motzei Shvi'is. Raban Gamliel argues and permits it.
6. The Chachamim have differing opinions as to whether a leap year may be established so that the Korban Pesach will not be brought b'Tum'ah.
7. There are several opinions as to why Chizkiyahu felt the need to do Teshuvah with regard to the Korban Pesach.
8. A leap year may not be proclaimed on the thirtieth day of Adar.
A BIT MORE
1. When a leap year is proclaimed, the Minchas ha'Omer, which is brought on the sixteenth day of Nisan, is pushed off for an entire month. As a result, the prohibition of Chadash is extended. For this reason, a leap year may not be proclaimed during a year of famine, because the new grain will remain prohibited for an extra month and the people will have nothing to eat.
2. The Chachamim are not permitted to discuss the establishment of a leap year until Rosh Hashanah has passed. However, even though they may begin such deliberations immediately after Rosh Hashanah, the only month that may be added is the month of Adar Sheni. An extra month may not be added at any other time of the year.
3. The Chachamim do not establish a leap year unless it is necessary for the year that they extend. They do not extend a year for sake of the following year. The Chachamim also do not establish three leap years in succession because that would cause Pesach to fall out during the summer.
4. A leap year is not established during a Shvi'is year because the prohibition to work the land would then remain in force for an extra month. The Chachamim usually establish a leap year during the year prior to Shvi'is, amd they thereby give the people an extra month to work the land.
5. The Chachamim prohibit the establishment of a leap year on Motzei Shvi'is because it would cause the prohibition of Chadash to be extended for an extra month. This would cause undue hardship for the people, since there would be no grain from the previous year, which was Shvi'is. Even though it is permissible to cultivate food in Chutz la'Aretz during Shvi'is, the Chachamim maintain that it is forbidden to bring vegetables from Chutz la'Aretz to Eretz Yisrael, since a clump of dirt from Chutz la'Aretz might accidentally be brought into Eretz Yisrael with the food. The soil of Chutz la'Aretz is considered Tamei, and the Chachamim forbid bringing it into Eretz Yisrael because it might be Metamei the Taharos that are found in Eretz Yisrael. Raban Gamliel, on the other hand, permits the establishment of a leap year even on Motzei Shvi'is because he maintains that it is permitted to bring vegetables from Chutz la'Aretz into Eretz Yisrael. The extended prohibition of Chadash will not create undue hardship because food from Chutz la'Aretz will be available.
6. Rebbi Yehudah maintains that if most of Klal Yisrael is Tamei, a Korban Tzibur may be brought b'Tum'ah even l'Chatchilah. Therefore the fact that the Korban Pesach will be brought b'Tum'ah does not constitute grounds to establish a leap year. Rebbi Shimon maintains that a Korban Tzibur may be brought b'Tum'ah only if there is no other choice. Therefore he maintains that a leap year should be established in order to avoid bringing the Korban Pesach b'Tum'ah. The Tana Kama maintains that a leap year should not be established for this purpose, but b'Di'eved if a leap year is proclaimed, the proclamation takes effect and the extra month is added to the calendar.
7. Rebbi Yehudah maintains that Chizkiyah did Teshuvah because he established a leap year to avoid bringing the Korban Pesach b'Tum'ah. Rebbi Shimon maintains that it is correct to establish a leap year for that purpose, and Chizkiyah did Teshuvah because he proclaimed a leap year on the thirtieth day of Adar. A leap year may not be established on the thirtieth of Adar because Beis Din can be Mekadesh the month of Nisan on that day. Rebbi Shimon Ben Yehudah maintains that Chizkiyah did Teshuvah because he delayed the Korban Pesach of the Temei'im until Pesach Sheni. Since the majority of the Tzibur was Tamei, he should have instructed everyone to bring the Korban Pesach on Pesach Rishon, even the people who were Tamei.
8. Beis Din is not permitted to proclaim a leap year on the thirtieth day of Adar. If they do proclaim a leap year, Ula rules that they should not be Mekadesh the Chodesh. If they are Mekadesh the Chodesh, Rava rules that the new month automatically become the month of Nisan and the proclamation of the leap year is annulled. Rav Nachman maintains that if Beis Din is Mekadesh the Chodesh, both the Kidush ha'Chodesh and the proclamation of the leap year take effect, and the new month will be Adar Sheni.
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